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Toxins 2018, 10(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040157

Alpha-Toxin Contributes to Biofilm Formation among Staphylococcus aureus Wound Isolates

1
Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Heath Care Business Group, 3M, St. Paul, MN 55144, USA
3
Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
5
Department of Medicine, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
6
Department of Infectious Disease, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
7
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455, USA
8
Infectious Disease Laboratory, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, MN 55164, USA
9
School of Pharmacy, The University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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Abstract

Biofilms complicate treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) wound infections. Previously, we determined alpha-toxin (AT)-promoted SA biofilm formation on mucosal tissue. Therefore, we evaluated SA wound isolates for AT production and biofilm formation on epithelium and assessed the role of AT in biofilm formation. Thirty-eight wound isolates were molecularly typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (ST), and spa typing. We measured biofilm formation of these SA isolates in vitro and ex vivo and quantified ex vivo AT production. We also investigated the effect of an anti-AT monoclonal antibody (MEDI4893*) on ex vivo biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant SA (USA 300 LAC) and tested whether purified AT rescued the biofilm defect of hla mutant SA strains. The predominant PFGE/ST combinations were USA100/ST5 (50%) and USA300/ST8 (33%) for methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA, n = 18), and USA200/ST30 (20%) for methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA, n = 20). Ex vivo AT production correlated significantly with ex vivo SA wound isolate biofilm formation. Anti-alpha-toxin monoclonal antibody (MEDI4893*) prevented ex vivo biofilm formation by MRSA USA300 strain LAC. Wild-type AT rescued the ex vivo biofilm defect of non-AT producing SA strains. These findings provide evidence that AT plays a role in SA biofilm formation on epithelial surfaces and suggest that neutralization of AT may be useful in preventing and treating SA infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin; bacterial toxin; biofilm; Staphylococcus aureus; wound toxin; bacterial toxin; biofilm; Staphylococcus aureus; wound
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Anderson, M.J.; Schaaf, E.; Breshears, L.M.; Wallis, H.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Tkaczyk, C.; Sellman, B.R.; Sun, J.; Peterson, M.L. Alpha-Toxin Contributes to Biofilm Formation among Staphylococcus aureus Wound Isolates. Toxins 2018, 10, 157.

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