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Toxins 2018, 10(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040158

Antivenom Production against Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops erythromelas Snake Venoms Using Cross-Linked Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Immunoadjuvant

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59012-570, Brazil
2
Department of Materials Engineering, Technology Center, University Campus, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Immunochemistry, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of Antibodies and Novel Antivenoms against Envenoming)
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Abstract

In Brazil, envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops is clinically relevant, particularly for the species Bothrops jararaca and B. erythromelas. The most effective treatment for envenomation by snakes is the administration of antivenoms associated with adjuvants. Novel adjuvants are required to reduce side effects and maximize the efficiency of conventional serum and vaccine formulations. The polymer chitosan has been shown to have immunoadjuvant properties, and it has been used as a platform for delivery systems. In this context, we evaluated the potential immunoadjuvant properties of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) loaded with B. jararaca and B. erythromelas venoms in the production of sera against these venoms. Stable CNPs were obtained by ionic gelation, and mice were immunized subcutaneously for 6 weeks with 100 µL of each snake venom at concentrations of 5.0 or 10.0% (w/w), encapsulated in CNPs or associated with aluminium hydroxide (AH). The evaluation of protein interactions with the CNPs revealed their ability to induce antibody levels equivalent to those of AH, even with smaller doses of antigen. In addition, the CNPs were less inflammatory due to their modified release of proteins. CNPs provide a promising approach for peptide/protein delivery from snake venom and will be useful for new vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bothrops venoms; antivenom; adjuvants; nanoparticles; chitosan; nanovaccines Bothrops venoms; antivenom; adjuvants; nanoparticles; chitosan; nanovaccines
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Soares, K.S.R.; Gláucia-Silva, F.; Daniele-Silva, A.; Torres-Rêgo, M.; Araújo, N.K.; Menezes, Y.A.S.; Damasceno, I.Z.; Tambourgi, D.V.; da Silva-Júnior, A.A.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, M.F. Antivenom Production against Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops erythromelas Snake Venoms Using Cross-Linked Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Immunoadjuvant. Toxins 2018, 10, 158.

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