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Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice

by Lei Bao 1,2, Xiaxia Cai 2,3, Junbo Wang 2, Yuan Zhang 2, Bin Sun 2 and Yong Li 2,*
1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing 102206, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
3
School of Public Health, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120807
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) is an edible and medicinal Chinese herb, which is often used in Asian countries for physical fitness. Ginseng is reported to have a wide range of biological activity and pharmaceutical properties. There were more studies on ginsenosides and polysaccharides, but fewer studies on ginseng oligopeptides (GOP), which are small molecule oligopeptides isolated from ginseng. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of GOP in mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets for the detection of different indicators. Each set of mice were then divided into four groups. The control group was administered distilled water, and three GOP intervention groups were administered 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, of GOP by gavage each day. After 30 days of GOP treatment, it was observed that GOP could significantly increase the forced swimming time, enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and hepatic glycogen levels, and retard the accumulation of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and blood lactic acid (BLA) in mice. GOP also markedly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations of inoxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes. Notably, GOP increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content in skeletal muscles of mice. These results suggest that GOP possess anti-fatigue effects, which may be attributed to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. GOP could be a novel natural agent for relieving exercise fatigue. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginseng oligopeptides; anti-fatigue; forced swimming test ginseng oligopeptides; anti-fatigue; forced swimming test
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Bao, L.; Cai, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, B.; Li, Y. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 807.

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