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Complex Multilevel Modelling of the Individual, Household and Regional Level Variability in Predictors of Undernutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

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Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, Hawassa University, Hawassa P.O. Box 05, Ethiopia
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Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast TF0494, Ghana
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College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
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Department of Estate Management, Takoradi Technical University, Takoradi P.O. Box 256, Ghana
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Department of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast TF0494, Ghana
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Neurocognition and Action-Biomechanics-Research Group, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Bielefeld University, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
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Faculty of Health, School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3018; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093018
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 29 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Worldwide, ten and a half million children under five die every year, with 98% of these deaths in low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Undernutrition is a serious public health problem in Ethiopia and children are the most affected segments of the population. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the socio-economic, demographic, health and environmental factors associated with undernutrition among children aged 6–59 months in Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. In this study, anthropometric data (height and weight) and other variables of 9461 children were measured. Descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression models were fitted. The descriptive results revealed that about 27.5% of the children aged between 6–59 months were undernourished. Place of residence, employment status of the mother, educational status of the mother, the mother’s nutritional status, age of the child, birth order of children, source of drinking water, diarrhea and fever among children in the two weeks before the survey were the most important factors associated with undernutrition among children aged 6–59 months in Ethiopia. The findings indicate that it is useful to support health care and food security programs in rural areas to directly address food insecurity and undernutrition problems of the poor and exposed communities in rural parts of the country. The education sector must increase mothers’ access to education in all areas to help identify the quality of healthcare and the required attention needed for their children. The health sector should increase their health education programs on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; DHS; Ethiopia; malnutrition; multilevel children; DHS; Ethiopia; malnutrition; multilevel
MDPI and ACS Style

Chikako, T.U.; Seidu, A.-A.; Hagan, J.E., Jr.; Ahinkorah, B.O. Complex Multilevel Modelling of the Individual, Household and Regional Level Variability in Predictors of Undernutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093018

AMA Style

Chikako TU, Seidu A-A, Hagan JE Jr., Ahinkorah BO. Complex Multilevel Modelling of the Individual, Household and Regional Level Variability in Predictors of Undernutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chikako, Teshita U., Abdul-Aziz Seidu, John E. Hagan Jr., and Bright O. Ahinkorah. 2021. "Complex Multilevel Modelling of the Individual, Household and Regional Level Variability in Predictors of Undernutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093018

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