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Article

Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis

1
Nutritional Unit ASL-1 Imperiese, Giovanni Borea Civil Hospital, 18038 Sanremo, Italy
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, IRCCS Policlinic Hospital San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Chourdakis and Emmanuella Magriplis
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041161
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major causes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recommended for its prevention. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adherence to an MD at baseline and follow-up, in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients, and to evaluate how different food intakes can influence lipid profile, especially how different sources of saturated fatty acids impact lipid phenotype. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 106 dyslipidemic patients. Clinical characteristics, lipid profile, and food habits data were collected at baseline and after three months of follow-up with counseling. Adherence to an MD was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (MEDI-LITE score). Results: The cross-sectional analysis showed that higher consumption of dairy products correlated independently with higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and with lower triglycerides (TG) levels. Instead, lower HDL-C and TG levels and higher TC levels were independently associated with higher consumption of meat products. Adherence to an MD significantly improved after the follow-up period, from a mean value of 10 ± 3 (median 10, IQR 8–12) to 13 ± 2 (median 14, IQR 12–15), p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Dyslipidemic patients benefit from counseling for improving their adherence to an MD. The high intake of dairy products was associated with less atherogenic hyperlipidemia, which was characterized by higher levels of TC and HDL-C as compared withs the intake of an excessive amount of meat products, which was associated with higher levels of TC and TG and lower levels of HDL-C. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; saturated fatty acids; ASCVD prevention Mediterranean diet; saturated fatty acids; ASCVD prevention
MDPI and ACS Style

Formisano, E.; Pasta, A.; Cremonini, A.L.; Di Lorenzo, I.; Sukkar, S.G.; Pisciotta, L. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1161. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041161

AMA Style

Formisano E, Pasta A, Cremonini AL, Di Lorenzo I, Sukkar SG, Pisciotta L. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1161. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Formisano, Elena, Andrea Pasta, Anna L. Cremonini, Ilaria Di Lorenzo, Samir G. Sukkar, and Livia Pisciotta. 2021. "Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1161. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041161

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