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The Equity and Effectiveness of Achieving Canada’s Voluntary Sodium Reduction Guidance Targets: A Modelling Study Using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition

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Health Promotion, Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON M5G 1V2, Canada
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Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
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Food, Nutrition and Health Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
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Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada
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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
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Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
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Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Sickkids Research Institute, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada
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School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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ICES, Toronto, ON K1Y 4E9, Canada
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Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada
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Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0T6, Canada
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Department of Family Medicine, and School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada
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Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1R 6M1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Murielle Bochud
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030779
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: High sodium intake is a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study estimated full compliance to Canada’s voluntary sodium reduction guidance (SRG) targets on social inequities and population sodium intake. Methods: We conducted a modeling study using n = 19,645, 24 h dietary recalls (Canadians ≥ 2 years) from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition (2015 CCHS-N). Multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean sodium intake in measured (in the 2015 CCHS-N) and modelled (achieving SRG targets) scenarios across education, income and food security. The percentage of Canadians with sodium intakes above chronic disease risk reduction (CDRR) thresholds was estimated using the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) method. Results: In children aged 2–8, achieving SRG targets reduced mean sodium intake differences between food secure and insecure households from 271 mg/day (95%CI: 75,468) to 83 mg/day (95%CI: −45,212); a finding consistent across education and income. Mean sodium intake inequities between low and high education households were eliminated for females aged 9–18 (96 mg/day, 95%CI: −149,341) and adults aged 19 and older (males: 148 mg/day, 95%CI: −30,327; female: −45 mg/day, 95%CI: −141,51). Despite these declines (after achieving the SRG targets) the majority of Canadians’ are above the CDRR thresholds. Conclusion: Achieving SRG targets would eliminate social inequities in sodium intake and reduce population sodium intake overall; however, additional interventions are required to reach recommended sodium levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium reformulation; sodium intake; 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition; social inequities; socioeconomic position; sodium reduction guidance targets sodium reformulation; sodium intake; 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition; social inequities; socioeconomic position; sodium reduction guidance targets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, B.T.; Hack, S.; Jessri, M.; Arcand, J.; McLaren, L.; L’Abbé, M.R.; Anderson, L.N.; Hobin, E.; Hammond, D.; Manson, H.; Rosella, L.C.; Manuel, D.G. The Equity and Effectiveness of Achieving Canada’s Voluntary Sodium Reduction Guidance Targets: A Modelling Study Using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition. Nutrients 2021, 13, 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030779

AMA Style

Smith BT, Hack S, Jessri M, Arcand J, McLaren L, L’Abbé MR, Anderson LN, Hobin E, Hammond D, Manson H, Rosella LC, Manuel DG. The Equity and Effectiveness of Achieving Canada’s Voluntary Sodium Reduction Guidance Targets: A Modelling Study Using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Brendan T.; Hack, Salma; Jessri, Mahsa; Arcand, JoAnne; McLaren, Lindsay; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Anderson, Laura N.; Hobin, Erin; Hammond, David; Manson, Heather; Rosella, Laura C.; Manuel, Douglas G. 2021. "The Equity and Effectiveness of Achieving Canada’s Voluntary Sodium Reduction Guidance Targets: A Modelling Study Using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030779

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