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Review

Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols

1
Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
2
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne 3011, Australia
3
Department of Medicine-Western Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3000, Australia
4
Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Department, College of Health Sciences, Research Institute of Medical and Health Sciences (RIMHS), University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates
5
Nuffield Department of Women’s & Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
6
St. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Medicine, University Cardiology Clinic, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elena Gonzalez-Burgos
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030728
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Phenolic Compounds on Human Health)
Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an alternative way to improve immune function to aid in the management of various diseases. Traditionally, many medicinal products have been derived from natural compounds with healing properties. With the development of research into nutraceuticals, it is becoming apparent that many of the beneficial properties of these compounds are at least partly due to the presence of polyphenols. There is evidence that dietary polyphenols can influence dendritic cells, have an immunomodulatory effect on macrophages, increase proliferation of B cells, T cells and suppress Type 1 T helper (Th1), Th2, Th17 and Th9 cells. Polyphenols reduce inflammation by suppressing the pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease by inducing Treg cells in the intestine, inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and induction of apoptosis, decreasing DNA damage. Polyphenols have a potential role in prevention/treatment of auto-immune diseases like type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis by regulating signaling pathways, suppressing inflammation and limiting demyelination. In addition, polyphenols cause immunomodulatory effects against allergic reaction and autoimmune disease by inhibition of autoimmune T cell proliferation and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)). Herein, we summarize the immunomodulatory effects of polyphenols and the underlying mechanisms involved in the stimulation of immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; immunomodulation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; anti-inflammatory cytokines polyphenols; immunomodulation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; anti-inflammatory cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shakoor, H.; Feehan, J.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Platat, C.; Al Dhaheri, A.S.; Ali, H.I.; Ismail, L.C.; Bosevski, M.; Stojanovska, L. Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols. Nutrients 2021, 13, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030728

AMA Style

Shakoor H, Feehan J, Apostolopoulos V, Platat C, Al Dhaheri AS, Ali HI, Ismail LC, Bosevski M, Stojanovska L. Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shakoor, Hira, Jack Feehan, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Carine Platat, Ayesha Salem Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Marijan Bosevski, and Lily Stojanovska. 2021. "Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030728

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