Next Article in Journal
Differences in Sweet Taste Perception and Its Association with the Streptococcus mutans Cariogenic Profile in Preschool Children with Caries
Next Article in Special Issue
Do Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Against Infant Atopic Disorders and Food Allergy?
Previous Article in Journal
Research Quality-Based Multivariate Modeling for Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of Black and Red Ginseng
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Maternal Diet and Milk Lipid Composition on the Infant Gut and Maternal Milk Microbiomes
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Infant and Maternal Factors on Energy and Macronutrient Composition of Human Milk

1
Department of Clinical Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, E Ciolka Str. 27, 01-445 Warsaw, Poland
2
Deparment of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha Str 1a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Neonatology, Laboratory of Human Milk and Lactation Research at Regional Human Milk Bank in Holy Family Hospital, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury Str. 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092591
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 26 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk, HMO, Lactation and Application in Infant Feeding)
The present study investigates the influence of selected infant and maternal factors on the energy and macronutrient composition of mature human milk (HM). The study enrolled 77 mothers at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Each mother provided 1 sample of HM. Each extracted HM sample was formed by mixing four subsamples of HM, each of which were obtained in one predefined 6-h periods of the day. Among maternal factors, the analysis included: anthropometric data before and after pregnancy; weight gain in pregnancy; body composition, assessed using the Maltron BioScan 920-II to analyze bioimpedance; and dietary intake, assessed with three-day dietary records. Among the neonatal factors, birth weight and length, number of daily feedings and type of delivery were included. The composition of HM, including energy content, protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations, was analyzed using the Miris human milk analyzer. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the selected maternal and infant factors and HM milk composition. It was found that total protein content of HM was correlated with pre-pregnancy BMI (Spearman rho = 0.238; p = 0.037), current lean body mass (Spearman rho = −0.293, p = 0.01) and total water content (Spearman rho = −0.315, p = 0.005). Carbohydrates were the only macronutrients whose composition was significantly affected by the infant factors. It was reported that higher carbohydrate content was associated with male sex (OR = 4.52, p = 0.049). Our results show that maternal and infant factors, especially maternal pre-pregnancy and current nutritional status and infant sex, interact and affect HM composition, suggesting that macronutrient and energy content in HM may be determined in pregnancy and may have unique compositional profile for every mother–infant dyad. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk composition; breastfeeding; sex-specificity; maternal nutrition; maternal nutritional status; body composition analysis human milk composition; breastfeeding; sex-specificity; maternal nutrition; maternal nutritional status; body composition analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Bzikowska-Jura, A.; Sobieraj, P.; Szostak-Węgierek, D.; Wesołowska, A. Impact of Infant and Maternal Factors on Energy and Macronutrient Composition of Human Milk. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2591.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop