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Open AccessArticle

Research Quality-Based Multivariate Modeling for Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of Black and Red Ginseng

1
College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Statistics, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul 02844, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
4
Department of Statistics, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
5
Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092590
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 23 August 2020 / Published: 26 August 2020
Black ginseng has various pharmacological activities, but only few studies have compared its pharmacological effects with those of red ginseng. We conducted an integrative systematic literature evaluation and developed a non-inferiority test based on the multivariate modeling approach to compare the pharmacological effects of red ginseng and black ginseng. We searched reported studies on the pharmaceutical effects and composition of ginsenosides and assigned numeric scores using nonlinear principal component analysis, based on discretization measures for the included publications. Downstream weighted linear regression models were constructed to study the eight major biological activities that are generally known to be exhibited by red ginseng. Our statistical model, based on available ordinal information gathered from previous literature, helped in comparing the overlapping effects of black ginseng. Black ginseng showed antioxidant effects comparable to those of red ginseng; however, this variant was inferior to red ginseng in enhancing immunity, relieving fatigue, alleviating depression/anxiety, decreasing body fat, and reducing blood pressure. We have showed a cost-efficient method to indirectly evaluate the biological effects of ginseng products using data from published articles. This method can also be used to compare the nutritional and medicinal value of herbal medicines that share similar compositions of bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: black ginseng; red ginseng; nonlinear principal component analysis; ginsenoside; pharmacological effect; systematic literature evaluation black ginseng; red ginseng; nonlinear principal component analysis; ginsenoside; pharmacological effect; systematic literature evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, D.-K.; Park, S.; Long, N.P.; Min, J.E.; Kim, H.M.; Yang, E.; Lee, S.J.; Lim, J.; Kwon, S.W. Research Quality-Based Multivariate Modeling for Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of Black and Red Ginseng. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2590.

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