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Review

Efficacy and Safety of a Ketogenic Diet in Children and Adolescents with Refractory Epilepsy—A Review

1
College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984045 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4045, USA
2
Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 988440 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-8440, USA
3
Department of Pharmaceutical and Nutrition Care, Nebraska Medicine 4350 Dewey Ave, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061809
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Epilepsy in the pediatric and adolescent populations is a devastating condition where individuals are prone to recurrent epileptic seizures or changes in behavior or movement that is the direct result of a primary change in the electrical activity in the brain. Although many children with epilepsy will have seizures controlled with antiseizure medications (ASMs), a large percentage of patients are refractory to drug therapy and may consider initiating a ketogenic diet. The term Ketogenic Diet or Ketogenic Diet Therapy (KDT) refers to any diet therapy in which dietary composition results in a ketogenic state of human metabolism. Currently, there are 4 major Ketogenic diet therapies—the classic ketogenic diet (cKD), the modified Atkins diet (MAD), the medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCTKD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT). The compositions of the 4 main KDTs differ and limited evidence to distinguish the efficacy among different diets currently exists. Although it is apparent that more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and long-term studies are needed to evaluate efficacy, side effects and individual response to the diet, it is imperative to study and understand the metabolic profiles of patients with epilepsy in order to isolate which dietary restrictions are necessary to maximize clinical benefit. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; seizure; nutrition; ketogenic; diet epilepsy; seizure; nutrition; ketogenic; diet
MDPI and ACS Style

Wells, J.; Swaminathan, A.; Paseka, J.; Hanson, C. Efficacy and Safety of a Ketogenic Diet in Children and Adolescents with Refractory Epilepsy—A Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061809

AMA Style

Wells J, Swaminathan A, Paseka J, Hanson C. Efficacy and Safety of a Ketogenic Diet in Children and Adolescents with Refractory Epilepsy—A Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wells, Jana, Arun Swaminathan, Jenna Paseka, and Corrine Hanson. 2020. "Efficacy and Safety of a Ketogenic Diet in Children and Adolescents with Refractory Epilepsy—A Review" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061809

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