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Effects of Age on Acute Appetite-Related Responses to Whey-Protein Drinks, Including Energy Intake, Gastric Emptying, Blood Glucose, and Plasma Gut Hormone Concentrations—A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
2
Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence (C.R.E.) in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, South-Australia 5000, Australia
3
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041008
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 6 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Macronutrients and Human Health)
Protein-rich supplements are used commonly to increase energy intake in undernourished older people. This study aimed to establish age effects on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, blood glucose, and gut hormones in response to protein-rich drinks. In a randomized double-blind, order, 13 older men (age: 75 ± 2 yrs, body mass index (BMI): 26 ± 1 kg/m2) and 13 younger (23 ± 1 yrs, 24 ± 1 kg/m2) men consumed (i) a control drink (~2 kcal) or drinks (450 mL) containing protein/fat/carbohydrate: (ii) 70 g/0 g/0 g (280 kcal/‘P280′), (iii) 14 g/12.4 g/28 g (280 kcal/‘M280′), (iv) 70 g/12.4 g/28 g (504 kcal/‘M504′), on four separate days. Appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3D ultrasonography), blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0–180 min), and ad-libitum energy intake (180–210 min) were determined. Older men, compared to younger men, had higher fasting glucose and CCK concentrations and lower fasting GLP-1 concentrations (all p < 0.05). Energy intake by P280 compared to control was less suppressed in older men (increase: 49 ± 42 kcal) than it was in younger men (suppression: 100 ± 54 kcal, p = 0.038). After the caloric drinks, the suppression of hunger and the desire to eat, and the stimulation of fullness was less (p < 0.05), and the stimulation of plasma GLP-1 was higher (p < 0.05) in older men compared to younger men. Gastric emptying, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and CCK responses were similar between age groups. In conclusion, ageing reduces the responses of caloric drinks on hunger, the desire to eat, fullness, and energy intake, and protein-rich nutrition supplements may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in undernourished older people. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; appetite; energy intake; gastric emptying; gut hormones; glucose; aging whey protein; appetite; energy intake; gastric emptying; gut hormones; glucose; aging
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Giezenaar, C.; Lange, K.; Hausken, T.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Chapman, I.; Soenen, S. Effects of Age on Acute Appetite-Related Responses to Whey-Protein Drinks, Including Energy Intake, Gastric Emptying, Blood Glucose, and Plasma Gut Hormone Concentrations—A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1008.

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