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Open AccessArticle

Obesity Is Less Frequently Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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PhD Program of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Respati Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Neurology and Dementia Center, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan
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The PhD Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020367
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
Obesity is one of the factors associated with cognitive impairment. However, obesity may differently affect cognitive function in different age groups, and scarce data are available from low- and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between obesity and cognitive impairment among 143 elderly individuals in Yogyakarta. We recorded the sociodemographic factors and some comorbidities, also measured the body mass index as a parameter of obesity, cognitive function using Montreal Cognitive Assessment—Indonesia, mood condition and depression status using geriatric depression scale-short form, as well as the daily life function using Activity of Daily Living and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living. After adjustment for the sociodemographic and comorbidities, we found that subjects with older age were more likely to have cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 3.544, 95%CI: 1.36–9.22, p < 0.01) and compared with elderly individuals with normal weight, obese elderly individuals were 40% less likely to have cognitive impairment (OR 0.604, 95%CI: 0.39–0.95, p < 0.05). This study suggests that obesity in elderly individuals is less frequently associated with cognitive impairment. These findings support the reverse causation mechanism related to body mass index (BMI) and cognitive impairment in low/middle-income countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; elderly; body mass index; cognitive impairment; Indonesia obesity; elderly; body mass index; cognitive impairment; Indonesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vidyanti, A.N.; Hardhantyo, M.; Wiratama, B.S.; Prodjohardjono, A.; Hu, C.-J. Obesity Is Less Frequently Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Nutrients 2020, 12, 367.

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