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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Maternal Obesity on Breast Milk Fatty Acids and Its Association with Infant Growth and Cognition—The PREOBE Follow-Up

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Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària UB (INSA-UB), 08921 Barcelona, Spain
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Teaching, Research & Innovation Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, 08830 Sant Boi, Spain
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Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of San Francisco de Quito, 170157 Quito, Ecuador
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Food Research and Analysis Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBERobn, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centre of Excellence for Paediatric Research EURISTIKOS, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Department of Paediatrics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health CIBEResp, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092154
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 24 August 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
This study analyzed how maternal obesity affected fatty acids (FAs) in breast milk and their association with infant growth and cognition to raise awareness about the programming effect of maternal health and to promote a healthy prenatal weight. Mother–child pairs (n = 78) were grouped per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): normal-weight (BMI = 18.5–24.99), overweight (BMI = 25–29.99) and obese (BMI > 30). Colostrum and mature milk FAs were determined. Infant anthropometry at 6, 18 and 36 months of age and cognition at 18 were analyzed. Mature milk exhibited lower arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), among others, than colostrum. Breast milk of non-normal weight mothers presented increased saturated FAs and n6:n3 ratio and decreased α-linolenic acid (ALA), DHA and monounsaturated FAs. Infant BMI-for-age at 6 months of age was inversely associated with colostrum n6 (e.g., AA) and n3 (e.g., DHA) FAs and positively associated with n6:n3 ratio. Depending on the maternal weight, infant cognition was positively influenced by breast milk linoleic acid, n6 PUFAs, ALA, DHA and n3 LC-PUFAs, and negatively affected by n6:n3 ratio. In conclusion, this study shows that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI can influence breast milk FAs and infant growth and cognition, endorsing the importance of a healthy weight in future generations. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal obesity; breastfeeding; breast milk; colostrum; mature milk; fatty acids; LC-PUFA; omega-3; omega-6; DHA; AA; children; growth; cognition; early life nutrition; programming maternal obesity; breastfeeding; breast milk; colostrum; mature milk; fatty acids; LC-PUFA; omega-3; omega-6; DHA; AA; children; growth; cognition; early life nutrition; programming
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de la Garza Puentes, A.; Martí Alemany, A.; Chisaguano, A.M.; Montes Goyanes, R.; Castellote, A.I.; Torres-Espínola, F.J.; García-Valdés, L.; Escudero-Marín, M.; Segura, M.T.; Campoy, C.; López-Sabater, M.C. The Effect of Maternal Obesity on Breast Milk Fatty Acids and Its Association with Infant Growth and Cognition—The PREOBE Follow-Up. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2154.

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