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Open AccessArticle

Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Potential Moderators Associated with All-Cause Mortality in a Representative Sample of Spanish Older Adults

1
Research, Innovation and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Carrer Doctor Pujadas 42, 08830 Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
2
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Calle Monforte de Lemos 3–5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton, Whitelands College, London SW15 4JD, UK
4
Department of Psychiatry, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa (IIS-Princesa), Calle de Diego de León 62, 28006 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Calle Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Psychology Deparment, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081794
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
This study sought to determine the association between levels of fruit and vegetable consumption and time to death, and to explore potential moderators. We analyzed a nationally-representative sample of 1699 older adults aged 65+ who were followed up for a period of 6 years. Participants were classified into low (≤3 servings day), medium (4), or high (≥5) consumption using tertiles. Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models (by age, gender, cohabiting, education, multimorbidity, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and obesity) were calculated. The majority of participants (65.7%) did not meet the recommendation of five servings per day. High fruit and vegetable intake increased by 27% the probability of surviving among older adults with two chronic conditions, compared to those who consumed ≤3 servings per day (HR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.21–0.69). However, this beneficial effect was not found for people with none, one chronic condition or three or more, indicating that this protective effect might not be sufficient for more severe cases of multimorbidity. Given a common co-occurrence of two non-communicable diseases in the elderly and the low frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in this population, interventions to promote consuming five or more servings per day could have a significant positive impact on reducing mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: survival; fruit and vegetable consumption; interaction; older adults; multimorbidity survival; fruit and vegetable consumption; interaction; older adults; multimorbidity
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Olaya, B.; Essau, C.A.; Moneta, M.V.; Lara, E.; Miret, M.; Martín-María, N.; Moreno-Agostino, D.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Abduljabbar, A.S.; Haro, J.M. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Potential Moderators Associated with All-Cause Mortality in a Representative Sample of Spanish Older Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1794.

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