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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020405

Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from a Chinese Prospective Birth Cohort Study

1
Department of Social Medicine, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China
2
Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02113, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
5
Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Singapore 119228, Singapore
6
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02113, USA
7
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80709, Taiwan
8
Department of epidemiology and health statistics, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China
9
Department of Curriculum and Teaching Research, Research Center of Medical Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
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Abstract

Dietary patterns during pregnancy have been shown to influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, evidence from Asian populations is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a prospective cohort study in China to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and GDM. We administered three-day food diaries (TFD) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at the second trimester. GDM was diagnosed with a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. We identified dietary patterns using principal components analysis and used multivariable logistic regression to investigate associations of dietary patterns with GDM. Of the 1014 participants, 23.5% were diagnosed with GDM. Both the TFD and FFQ identified a “traditional pattern”, consisting of high vegetable, fruit, and rice intake, which was associated with a lower GDM risk (odds ratio (OR) for quartile 4 versus quartile 1: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23–0.71 for traditional pattern (TFD); OR: 0.44, CI: 0.27–0.70 for traditional pattern (FFQ)). The protective associations were more pronounced among women ≥35 years old. A whole grain–seafood TFD pattern was associated with higher risk of GDM (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.10–2.74). These findings may provide evidence for making dietary guidelines among pregnant women in Chinese populations to prevent GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; maternal nutrition; dietary pattern; gestational diabetes mellitus; Asia; three-day food diary; food frequency questionnaire pregnancy; maternal nutrition; dietary pattern; gestational diabetes mellitus; Asia; three-day food diary; food frequency questionnaire
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    Doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.7489580
    Description: Table S2. Associations of intake of foods and food groups (expressed as z-scores) from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) with risk for GDM and difference in mean plasma glucose level during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT)Table S1. Complete list of the 21 food groups.
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Hu, J.; Oken, E.; Aris, I.M.; Lin, P.-I.D.; Ma, Y.; Ding, N.; Gao, M.; Wei, X.; Wen, D. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from a Chinese Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 405.

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