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Effect of Enzymatic Treatment of Chrysanthemum Indicum Linné Extracts on Lipid Accumulation and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

1
Department of Immunology and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 54907, Korea
2
BTC Corperation, #703, Technology Development Center, 705 Haean-ro, Sangnok-gu, Andsan-si 15588, Korea
3
Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea
4
Wonkwang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Iksan 54588, Korea
5
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020269
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract

Enzyme treatment of the foods and herbs has been used to improve the absorption rate the efficiency of plant extracts by converting the glycosides of the plant into aglycones. In this study, we examined the obesity-inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (CI) treated with enzymes such as viscozyme and tannase, which are highly efficient in converting glycosides to aglycones and then compared with untreated CI extract. The enzyme-treated CI ethanol extract (CIVT) was administered orally at various doses for 7 weeks in the high fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. CIVT administration reduced the body weights, the food efficiency and the serum levels of lipid metabolism-related biomarkers, such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and leptin in the dose-dependent manner but not those high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and adiponectin. CIVT also reduced considerably the total lipid amount in the liver and the size of adipocytes in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). CIVT effectively downregulated the adipogenesis-related transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferation activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α) but up-regulated PPAR-α, in the liver and eWAT. In addition, when compared to the enzyme-untreated CI 50% ethanol extract (CIEE), CIVT enhanced the reduction of body weight and lipid accumulation. Moreover, the viscozyme and tannase treatment of CI increased the flavonoid contents of the aglycone form. Therefore, our results support that the enzymatic treatment induced the production of aglycones for potentially suppressing the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in HFD-fed mice. It suggests that CIVT might be an effective candidate for attenuating the over-weight and its related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chrysanthemum Indicum Linné; obesity; enzymatic treatment; adipogenesis; lipid accumulation Chrysanthemum Indicum Linné; obesity; enzymatic treatment; adipogenesis; lipid accumulation
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Lee, J.-H.; Moon, J.-M.; Kim, Y.-H.; Lee, B.; Choi, S.-Y.; Song, B.-J.; Kim, D.-K.; Lee, Y.-M. Effect of Enzymatic Treatment of Chrysanthemum Indicum Linné Extracts on Lipid Accumulation and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice. Nutrients 2019, 11, 269.

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