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Open AccessArticle

Micronutrient Deficiencies, Nutritional Status and the Determinants of Anemia in Children 0–59 Months of Age and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in The Gambia

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GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland
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National Nutrition Agency, Banjul, The Gambia
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UNICEF, Banjul, The Gambia
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Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
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Gambia Bureau of Statistics, Banjul, The Gambia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102275
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
Data on micronutrient deficiency prevalence, nutrition status, and risk factors of anemia in The Gambia is scanty. To fill this data gap, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1354 children (0–59 months), 1703 non-pregnant women (NPW; 15–49 years), and 158 pregnant women (PW). The survey assessed the prevalence of under and overnutrition, anemia, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anemia (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Multivariate analysis was used to assess risk factors of anemia. Among children, prevalence of anemia, ID, IDA, and VAD was 50.4%, 59.0%, 38.2%, and 18.3%, respectively. Nearly 40% of anemia was attributable to ID. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and small head circumference was 15.7%, 10.6%, 5.8%, and 7.4%, respectively. Among NPW, prevalence of anemia, ID, IDA and VAD was 50.9%, 41.4%, 28.0% and 1.8%, respectively. Anemia was significantly associated with ID and vitamin A insufficiency. Median UIC in NPW and PW was 143.1 µg/L and 113.5 ug/L, respectively. Overall, 18.3% of NPW were overweight, 11.1% obese, and 15.4% underweight. Anemia is mainly caused by ID and poses a severe public health problem. To tackle both anemia and ID, programs such as fortification or supplementation should be intensified. View Full-Text
Keywords: The Gambia; national cross-sectional survey; micronutrient deficiency; anemia determinants; iron deficiency; vitamin A deficiency; undernutrition; stunting; head circumference; wasting The Gambia; national cross-sectional survey; micronutrient deficiency; anemia determinants; iron deficiency; vitamin A deficiency; undernutrition; stunting; head circumference; wasting
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Petry, N.; Jallow, B.; Sawo, Y.; Darboe, M.K.; Barrow, S.; Sarr, A.; Ceesay, P.O.; Fofana, M.N.; Prentice, A.M.; Wegmüller, R.; Rohner, F.; Phall, M.C.; Wirth, J.P. Micronutrient Deficiencies, Nutritional Status and the Determinants of Anemia in Children 0–59 Months of Age and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in The Gambia. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2275.

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