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Vitamin K in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Renal Division, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
2
Renal Research Laboratory, Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico & Fondazione D’Amico per la Ricerca sulle Malattie Renali, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010168
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Vitamin K is a composite term referring to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that function as a cofactor for the enzyme γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), which activates a number of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) involved in haemostasis and vascular and bone health. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from subclinical vitamin K deficiency, suggesting that this represents a population at risk for the biological consequences of poor vitamin K status. This deficiency might be caused by exhaustion of vitamin K due to its high requirements by vitamin K-dependent proteins to inhibit calcification. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; CKD; vascular calcification vitamin K; CKD; vascular calcification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cozzolino, M.; Mangano, M.; Galassi, A.; Ciceri, P.; Messa, P.; Nigwekar, S. Vitamin K in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 168.

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