Next Article in Journal
Role of Ketogenic Diets in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease)
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Protein, Kidney Function and Mortality: Review of the Evidence from Epidemiological Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Honey and Its Role in Relieving Multiple Facets of Atherosclerosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Moderate Protein Restriction in Advanced CKD: A Feasible Option in An Elderly, High-Comorbidity Population. A Stepwise Multiple-Choice System Approach
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Vitamin K in Chronic Kidney Disease

Renal Division, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
Renal Research Laboratory, Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico & Fondazione D’Amico per la Ricerca sulle Malattie Renali, 20122 Milan, Italy
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 168;
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
PDF [282 KB, uploaded 16 January 2019]


Vitamin K is a composite term referring to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that function as a cofactor for the enzyme γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), which activates a number of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) involved in haemostasis and vascular and bone health. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from subclinical vitamin K deficiency, suggesting that this represents a population at risk for the biological consequences of poor vitamin K status. This deficiency might be caused by exhaustion of vitamin K due to its high requirements by vitamin K-dependent proteins to inhibit calcification. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; CKD; vascular calcification vitamin K; CKD; vascular calcification

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cozzolino, M.; Mangano, M.; Galassi, A.; Ciceri, P.; Messa, P.; Nigwekar, S. Vitamin K in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 168.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top