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Open AccessArticle

Using Saildrones to Validate Arctic Sea-Surface Salinity from the SMAP Satellite and from Ocean Models

1
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
2
Farallon Institute, Petaluma, CA 94952, USA
3
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, San José State University, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
4
Physical Oceanography Department, Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education at Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Mexico
5
Institute of Oceanography, University of Sao Paolo, São Paulo 05508-120, Brazil
6
Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Aulicino and Peter Wadhams
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050831
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of the Polar Oceans)
The Arctic Ocean is one of the most important and challenging regions to observe—it experiences the largest changes from climate warming, and at the same time is one of the most difficult to sample because of sea ice and extreme cold temperatures. Two NASA-sponsored deployments of the Saildrone vehicle provided a unique opportunity for validating sea-surface salinity (SSS) derived from three separate products that use data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. To examine possible issues in resolving mesoscale-to-submesoscale variability, comparisons were also made with two versions of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model (Carroll, D; Menmenlis, D; Zhang, H.). The results indicate that the three SMAP products resolve the runoff signal associated with the Yukon River, with high correlation between SMAP products and Saildrone SSS. Spectral slopes, overall, replicate the −2.0 slopes associated with mesoscale-submesoscale variability. Statistically significant spatial coherences exist for all products, with peaks close to 100 km. Based on these encouraging results, future research should focus on improving derivations of satellite-derived SSS in the Arctic Ocean and integrating model results to complement remote sensing observations.
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Keywords: sea surface salinity; validation; coastal sea surface salinity; validation; coastal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vazquez-Cuervo, J.; Gentemann, C.; Tang, W.; Carroll, D.; Zhang, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Gomez-Valdes, J.; Bouali, M.; Steele, M. Using Saildrones to Validate Arctic Sea-Surface Salinity from the SMAP Satellite and from Ocean Models. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 831. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050831

AMA Style

Vazquez-Cuervo J, Gentemann C, Tang W, Carroll D, Zhang H, Menemenlis D, Gomez-Valdes J, Bouali M, Steele M. Using Saildrones to Validate Arctic Sea-Surface Salinity from the SMAP Satellite and from Ocean Models. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(5):831. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050831

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vazquez-Cuervo, Jorge; Gentemann, Chelle; Tang, Wenqing; Carroll, Dustin; Zhang, Hong; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Bouali, Marouan; Steele, Michael. 2021. "Using Saildrones to Validate Arctic Sea-Surface Salinity from the SMAP Satellite and from Ocean Models" Remote Sens. 13, no. 5: 831. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050831

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