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Article

Satellite Measured Ionospheric Magnetic Field Variations over Natural Hazards Sites

1
Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
2
Department of Physics, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, 123995 Moscow, Russia
4
National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
5
National Institute of Natural Hazards, MEMC, Beijing 100085, China
6
Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Christopher Gomez, Candide Lissak and Danang Sri Hadmoko
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(12), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13122360
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
Processes and threats related to natural hazards play an important role in the evolution of the Earth and in human history. The purpose of this study is to investigate magnetic field variations measured at low Earth orbit (LEO) altitudes possibly associated with earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and artificial outbursts. We focus on two missions with well equipped magnetometer packages, the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) and ESA’s three spacecraft Swarm fleet. After a natural hazards survey in the context of this satellites, and consideration of external magnetospheric and solar influences, together with spacecraft interferences, wavelet analysed spatio-temporal patterns in ionospheric magnetic field variations related to atmospheric waves are examined in detail. We provide assessment of the links between specific lithospheric or near surface sources and ionospheric magnetic field measurements. For some of the diverse events the achieved statistical results show a change in the pattern between pre- and post-event periods, we show there is an increase in the fluctuations for the higher frequency (smaller scales) components. Our results are relevant to studies which establish a link between space based magnetic field measurements and natural hazards. View Full-Text
Keywords: CSES; Swarm; earthquake; volcano; natural hazards; ionosphere; atmospheric waves CSES; Swarm; earthquake; volcano; natural hazards; ionosphere; atmospheric waves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schirninger, C.; Eichelberger, H.U.; Magnes, W.; Boudjada, M.Y.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Pollinger, A.; Besser, B.P.; Biagi, P.F.; Solovieva, M.; Wang, J.; Cheng, B.; Zhou, B.; Shen, X.; Delva, M.; Lammegger, R. Satellite Measured Ionospheric Magnetic Field Variations over Natural Hazards Sites. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13122360

AMA Style

Schirninger C, Eichelberger HU, Magnes W, Boudjada MY, Schwingenschuh K, Pollinger A, Besser BP, Biagi PF, Solovieva M, Wang J, Cheng B, Zhou B, Shen X, Delva M, Lammegger R. Satellite Measured Ionospheric Magnetic Field Variations over Natural Hazards Sites. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(12):2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13122360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schirninger, Christoph, Hans U. Eichelberger, Werner Magnes, Mohammed Y. Boudjada, Konrad Schwingenschuh, Andreas Pollinger, Bruno P. Besser, Pier F. Biagi, Maria Solovieva, Jindong Wang, Bingjun Cheng, Bin Zhou, Xuhui Shen, Magda Delva, and Roland Lammegger. 2021. "Satellite Measured Ionospheric Magnetic Field Variations over Natural Hazards Sites" Remote Sensing 13, no. 12: 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13122360

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