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Article

Satellite Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Conditions: A Summary of Advances Made in the SPICES Project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Programme

1
Finnish Meteorological Institute, PB 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Science and Technology—DiST, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Centro Direzionale Is C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
3
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, UK
4
Ifremer, Univ. Brest, CNRS, IRD, Laboratoire d’Océanographie Physique et Spatiale, IUEM, 29280 Brest, France
5
AlfredWegener Institute, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
6
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany, (now consultant at the same institute)
7
Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, UZA II, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
8
Department of Satellite Meteorology, ISAC-CNR, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
9
Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Natural Sciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
10
Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
11
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences - DiSVA, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
12
DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej Bygning 327, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(7), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071214
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polar Sea Ice: Detection, Monitoring and Modeling)
The detection, monitoring, and forecasting of sea-ice conditions, including their extremes, is very important for ship navigation and offshore activities, and for monitoring of sea-ice processes and trends. We summarize here recent advances in the monitoring of sea-ice conditions and their extremes from satellite data as well as the development of sea-ice seasonal forecasting capabilities. Our results are the outcome of the three-year (2015–2018) SPICES (Space-borne Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Cover Extremes) project funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme. New SPICES sea-ice products include pancake ice thickness and degree of ice ridging based on synthetic aperture radar imagery, Arctic sea-ice volume and export derived from multisensor satellite data, and melt pond fraction and sea-ice concentration using Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer data. Forecasts of July sea-ice conditions from initial conditions in May showed substantial improvement in some Arctic regions after adding sea-ice thickness (SIT) data to the model initialization. The SIT initialization also improved seasonal forecasts for years with extremely low summer sea-ice extent. New SPICES sea-ice products have a demonstrable level of maturity, and with a reasonable amount of further work they can be integrated into various operational sea-ice services. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctic; sea ice; remote sensing; forecasting Arctic; sea ice; remote sensing; forecasting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mäkynen, M.; Haapala, J.; Aulicino, G.; Balan-Sarojini, B.; Balmaseda, M.; Gegiuc, A.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Hendricks, S.; Heygster, G.; Istomina, L.; Kaleschke, L.; Karvonen, J.; Krumpen, T.; Lensu, M.; Mayer, M.; Parmiggiani, F.; Ricker, R.; Rinne, E.; Schmitt, A.; Similä, M.; Tietsche, S.; Tonboe, R.; Wadhams, P.; Winstrup, M.; Zuo, H. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Conditions: A Summary of Advances Made in the SPICES Project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Programme. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1214. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071214

AMA Style

Mäkynen M, Haapala J, Aulicino G, Balan-Sarojini B, Balmaseda M, Gegiuc A, Girard-Ardhuin F, Hendricks S, Heygster G, Istomina L, Kaleschke L, Karvonen J, Krumpen T, Lensu M, Mayer M, Parmiggiani F, Ricker R, Rinne E, Schmitt A, Similä M, Tietsche S, Tonboe R, Wadhams P, Winstrup M, Zuo H. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Conditions: A Summary of Advances Made in the SPICES Project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Programme. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(7):1214. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071214

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mäkynen, Marko; Haapala, Jari; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Balan-Sarojini, Beena; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Gegiuc, Alexandru; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Istomina, Larysa; Kaleschke, Lars; Karvonen, Juha; Krumpen, Thomas; Lensu, Mikko; Mayer, Michael; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Ricker, Robert; Rinne, Eero; Schmitt, Amelie; Similä, Markku; Tietsche, Steffen; Tonboe, Rasmus; Wadhams, Peter; Winstrup, Mai; Zuo, Hao. 2020. "Satellite Observations for Detecting and Forecasting Sea-Ice Conditions: A Summary of Advances Made in the SPICES Project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Programme" Remote Sens. 12, no. 7: 1214. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071214

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