Next Article in Journal
Automatic High-Resolution Land Cover Production in Madagascar Using Sentinel-2 Time Series, Tile-Based Image Classification and Google Earth Engine
Next Article in Special Issue
Special Issue “Remote-Sensing-Based Urban Planning Indicators”
Previous Article in Journal
Fuel Type Classification Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Sentinel 2 Data in Mediterranean Forest Affected by Wildfires
Previous Article in Special Issue
Investigating Seasonal Effects of Dominant Driving Factors on Urban Land Surface Temperature in a Snow-Climate City in China
Article

Analysing Urban Development Patterns in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Kabul

Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, 7514 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3662; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213662
Received: 20 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 8 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing-Based Urban Planning Indicators)
A large part of the population in low-income countries (LICs) lives in fragile and conflict-affected states. Many cities in these states show high growth dynamics, but little is known about the relation of conflicts and urban growth. In Afghanistan, the Taliban regime, which lasted from 1996 to 2001, caused large scale displacement of the population. People from Afghanistan migrated to neighboring countries like Iran and Pakistan, and all developments came to a halt. After the US invasion in October 2001, all the major cities in Afghanistan experienced significant population growth, in particular, driven by the influx of internally displaced persons. Maximum pressure of this influx was felt by the capital city, Kabul. This rapid urbanization, combined with very limited capacity of local authorities to deal with this growth, led to unplanned urbanization and challenges for urban planning and management. This study analyses the patterns of growth between 2001 and 2017, and the factors influencing the growth in the city of Kabul with the help of high-resolution Earth Observation-based data (EO) and spatial logistic regression modelling. We analyze settlement patterns by extracting image features from high-resolution images (aerial photographs of 2017) and terrain features as input to a random forest classifier. The urban growth is analyzed using an available built-up map (extracted from IKONOS images for the year 2001). Results indicate that unplanned settlements have grown 4.5 times during this period, whereas planned settlements have grown only 1.25 times. The unplanned settlements expanded mostly towards the west and north west parts of the city, and the growth of planned settlements happened mainly in the central and eastern parts of the city. Population density and the locations of military bases are the most important factors that influence the growth, of both planned and unplanned settlements. The growth of unplanned settlement occurs predominantly in areas of steeper slopes on the hillside, while planned settlements are on gentle slopes and closer to the institutional areas (central and eastern parts of the city). We conclude that security and availability of infrastructure were the main drivers of growth for planned settlements, whereas unplanned growth, mainly on hillsides, was driven by the availability of land with poor infrastructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: random forest classification; machine learning; spatial logistic regression; urban growth; urban growth model; conflict; GLCM; unplanned areas; informal areas random forest classification; machine learning; spatial logistic regression; urban growth; urban growth model; conflict; GLCM; unplanned areas; informal areas
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaturvedi, V.; Kuffer, M.; Kohli, D. Analysing Urban Development Patterns in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Kabul. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213662

AMA Style

Chaturvedi V, Kuffer M, Kohli D. Analysing Urban Development Patterns in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Kabul. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(21):3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213662

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaturvedi, Vineet, Monika Kuffer, and Divyani Kohli. 2020. "Analysing Urban Development Patterns in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Kabul" Remote Sensing 12, no. 21: 3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213662

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop