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Open AccessArticle

Understanding Inter-Hemispheric Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Their Mechanisms

1
Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 99 Millstone Rd, Westford, MA 01886, USA
2
National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12227-010, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020228
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 27 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ionosphere Observation and Investigation)
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are wave-like disturbances in ionospheric plasma density. They are often observed during both quiet (medium-scale TID) and geomagnetically disturbed (large-scale TID) conditions. Their amplitudes can reach double-digit percentages of the background plasma density, and their existence presents a challenge for accurate ionosphere specification. In this study, we examine TID properties using observations obtained during two geomagnetically disturbed periods using multiple ground and space-borne instruments, such as magnetometers, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, and the SWARM satellite. Reference quiet time observations are also provided for both storms. We use a thermosphere–ionosphere–electrodynamics general circulation model (TIEGCM) results to properly interpret TID features and their drivers. This combination of observations and modeling allows the investigation of variations of TID generation mechanisms and subsequent wave propagation, particularly as a function of different plasma background densities during various geophysical conditions. The trans-equatorial coupling of TIDs in the northern and southern hemispheres is also investigated with respect to attenuation and propagation characteristics. We show that TID properties during trans-equatorial events may be substantially affected by storm time background neutral wind perturbation. View Full-Text
Keywords: traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs); background neutral wind; interhemispheric TID propagation; trans-equatorial characteristics of TIDs; TIEGCM; O/N2 ratio; MSTIDs; LSTIDs traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs); background neutral wind; interhemispheric TID propagation; trans-equatorial characteristics of TIDs; TIEGCM; O/N2 ratio; MSTIDs; LSTIDs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jonah, O.F.; Zhang, S.; Coster, A.J.; Goncharenko, L.P.; Erickson, P.J.; Rideout, W.; de Paula, E.R.; de Jesus, R. Understanding Inter-Hemispheric Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Their Mechanisms. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 228.

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