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Open AccessArticle

Measuring Surface Moisture on a Sandy Beach based on Corrected Intensity Data of a Mobile Terrestrial LiDAR

1
Department of Geography, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Real-estate and Applied Geomatics, University College Ghent, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 904, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
4
Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020209
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 5 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications in Coastal Environment)
Surface moisture plays a key role in limiting the aeolian transport on sandy beaches. However, the existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the beach surface moisture. In this study, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR (MTL) is demonstrated as a promising method to detect the beach surface moisture using a phase-based Z&F/Leica HDS6100 laser scanner mounted on an all-terrain vehicle. Firstly, two sets of indoor calibration experiments were conducted so as to comprehensively investigate the effect of distance, incidence angle and sand moisture contents on the backscattered intensity by means of sand samples with an average grain diameter of 0.12 mm. A moisture estimation model was developed which eliminated the effects of the incidence angle and distance (it only relates to the target surface reflectance). The experimental results reveal both the distance and incidence angle influencing the backscattered intensity of the sand samples. The standard error of the moisture model amounts to 2.0% moisture, which is considerably lower than the results of the photographic method. Moreover, a field measurement was conducted using the MTL system on a sandy beach in Belgium. The accuracy and robustness of the beach surface moisture derived from the MTL data was evaluated. The results show that the MTL is a highly suitable technique to accurately and robustly measure the surface moisture variations on a sandy beach with an ultra-high spatial resolution (centimeter-level) in a short time span (12 × 200 m per minute). View Full-Text
Keywords: beach monitoring; mobile terrestrial LiDAR; intensity calibration; beach surface moisture beach monitoring; mobile terrestrial LiDAR; intensity calibration; beach surface moisture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, J.; De Sloover, L.; Verbeurgt, J.; Stal, C.; Deruyter, G.; Montreuil, A.-L.; De Maeyer, P.; De Wulf, A. Measuring Surface Moisture on a Sandy Beach based on Corrected Intensity Data of a Mobile Terrestrial LiDAR. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 209.

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