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Article

Spatio-Temporal Variability of Chlorophyll-A and Environmental Variables in the Panama Bight

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Centro FONDAP de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia 5110566, Chile
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Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción 4051381, Chile
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Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática (UNESIS), Departamento de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
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Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Programa de Postgrado en Oceanografía, Departamento de Oceanografía, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Departamento de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
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Ecoreef Ltda., Departamento de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo. Calle 174A No. 49B–46, Bogotá 111166, Colombia
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Instituto de Fomento Pesquero, Blanco 839, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
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Centro de Investigaciones Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas (CIOH), Área de protección del Medio Marino, Cartagena 130001, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(13), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132150
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
The analysis of synoptic satellite data of total chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and the environmental drivers that influence nutrient and light availability for phytoplankton growth allows us to understand the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass. In the Panama Bight Tropical region (PB; 1–9°N, 79–84°W), the spatial distribution of Chl-a is mostly related to the seasonal wind patterns and the intensity of localized upwelling centers. However, the association between the Chl-a and different physical variables and nutrient availability is still not fully assessed. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between the Chl-a and multiple physical (wind, Ekman pumping, geostrophic circulation, mixed layer depth, sea level anomalies, river discharges, sea surface temperature, and photosynthetically available radiation) and chemical (nutrients) drivers in order to explain the spatio-temporal Chl-a variability in the PB. We used satellite data of Chl-a and physical variables, and a re-analysis of a biogeochemical product for nutrients (2002–2016). Our results show that at the regional scale, the Chl-a varies seasonally in response to the wind forcing and sea surface temperature. However, in the coastal areas (mainly Gulf of Panama and off central-southern Colombia), the maximum non-seasonal Chl-a values are found in association with the availability of nutrients by river discharges, localized upwelling centers and the geostrophic circulation field. From this study, we infer that the interplay among these physical-chemical drivers is crucial for supporting the phytoplankton growth and the high biodiversity of the PB region. View Full-Text
Keywords: satellite chlorophyll-a; nutrients; sea surface temperature; photosynthetically available radiation; geostrophic circulation; wind stress; Ekman pumping; Panama Bight satellite chlorophyll-a; nutrients; sea surface temperature; photosynthetically available radiation; geostrophic circulation; wind stress; Ekman pumping; Panama Bight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Corredor-Acosta, A.; Cortés-Chong, N.; Acosta, A.; Pizarro-Koch, M.; Vargas, A.; Medellín-Mora, J.; Saldías, G.S.; Echeverry-Guerra, V.; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, J.; Betancur-Turizo, S. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Chlorophyll-A and Environmental Variables in the Panama Bight. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132150

AMA Style

Corredor-Acosta A, Cortés-Chong N, Acosta A, Pizarro-Koch M, Vargas A, Medellín-Mora J, Saldías GS, Echeverry-Guerra V, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J, Betancur-Turizo S. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Chlorophyll-A and Environmental Variables in the Panama Bight. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(13):2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corredor-Acosta, Andrea, Náyade Cortés-Chong, Alberto Acosta, Matias Pizarro-Koch, Andrés Vargas, Johanna Medellín-Mora, Gonzalo S. Saldías, Valentina Echeverry-Guerra, Jairo Gutiérrez-Fuentes, and Stella Betancur-Turizo. 2020. "Spatio-Temporal Variability of Chlorophyll-A and Environmental Variables in the Panama Bight" Remote Sensing 12, no. 13: 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132150

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