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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11040377

How Groundwater Level Fluctuations and Geotechnical Properties Lead to Asymmetric Subsidence: A PSInSAR Analysis of Land Deformation over a Transit Corridor in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91779, Iran
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
3
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
4
Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 19967, Iran
5
M. E. Rinker, Sr. School of Construction Management, University of Florida, P.O. Box 115703, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract

Los Angeles has experienced ground deformations during the past decades. These ground displacements can be destructive for infrastructure and can reduce the land capacity for groundwater storage. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate the existing ground displacement patterns along a new metro tunnel in Los Angeles, known as the Sepulveda Transit Corridor. The goal is to find the most crucial areas suffering from subsidence or uplift and to enhance the previous reports in this metropolitan area. For this purpose, we applied a Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar using 29 Sentinel-1A acquisitions from June 2017 to May 2018 to estimate the deformation rate. The assessment procedure demonstrated a high rate of subsidence in the Inglewood field that is near the study area of the Sepulveda Transit Corridor with a maximum deformation rate of 30 mm/yr. Finally, data derived from in situ instruments as groundwater level variations, GPS observations, and soil properties were collected and analyzed to interpret the results. Investigation of geotechnical boreholes indicates layers of fine-grained soils in some parts of the area and this observation confirms the necessity of more detailed geotechnical investigations for future constructions in the region. Results of investigating line-of-sight displacement rates showed asymmetric subsidence along the corridor and hence we proposed a new framework to evaluate the asymmetric subsidence index that can help the designers and decision makers of the project to consider solutions to control the current subsidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: subsidence monitoring; persistent scatterer interferometry; asymmetric subsidence; groundwater level variation; Sepulveda Transit Corridor; Los Angeles subsidence monitoring; persistent scatterer interferometry; asymmetric subsidence; groundwater level variation; Sepulveda Transit Corridor; Los Angeles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Khorrami, M.; Alizadeh, B.; Ghasemi Tousi, E.; Shakerian, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Rahgozar, P. How Groundwater Level Fluctuations and Geotechnical Properties Lead to Asymmetric Subsidence: A PSInSAR Analysis of Land Deformation over a Transit Corridor in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 377.

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