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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030347

Performance of Multi-GNSS Precise Point Positioning Time and Frequency Transfer with Clock Modeling

1,2,3,*
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1,2,3
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1,3
,
1,3,4,*
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5
,
6
and
7
1
National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Key Laboratory of Precise Positioning and Timing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600, China
4
School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
5
College of Geomatics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
6
Institute of Ocean Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266000, China
7
School of Geomatics, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan 232001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract

Thanks to the international GNSS service (IGS), which has provided multi-GNSS precise products, multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) time and frequency transfer has of great interest in the timing community. Currently, multi-GNSS PPP time transfer is not investigated with different precise products. In addition, the correlation of the receiver clock offsets between adjacent epochs has not been studied in multi-GNSS PPP. In this work, multi-GNSS PPP time and frequency with different precise products is first compared in detail. A receiver clock offset model, considering the correlation of the receiver clock offsets between adjacent epochs using an a priori value, is then employed to improve multi-GNSS PPP time and frequency (scheme2). Our numerical analysis clarify how the approach performs for multi-GNSS PPP time and frequency transfer. Based on two commonly used multi-GNSS products and six GNSS stations, three conclusions are obtained straightforwardly. First, the GPS-only, Galileo-only, and multi-GNSS PPP solutions show similar performances using GBM and COD products, while BDS-only PPP using GBM products is better than that using COD products. Second, multi-GNSS time transfer outperforms single GNSS by increasing the number of available satellites and improving the time dilution of precision. For single-system and multi-GNSS PPP with GBM products, the maximum improvement in root mean square (RMS) values for multi-GNSS solutions are up to 7.4%, 94.0%, and 57.3% compared to GPS-only, BDS-only, and Galileo-only solutions, respectively. For stability, the maximum improvement of multi-GNSS is 20.3%, 84%, and 45.4% compared to GPS-only, BDS-only and Galileo-only solutions. Third, our approach contains less noise compared to the solutions with the white noise model, both for the single-system model and the multi-GNSS model. The RMS values of our approach are improved by 37.8–91.9%, 10.5–65.8%, 2.7–43.1%, and 26.6–86.0% for GPS-only, BDS-only, Galileo-only, and multi-GNSS solutions. For frequency stability, the improvement of scheme2 ranges from 0.2 to 51.6%, from 3 to 80.0%, from 0.2 to 70.8%, and from 0.1 to 51.5% for GPS-only, BDS-only, Galileo-only, and multi-GNSS PPP solutions compared to the solutions with the white noise model in the Eurasia links. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-GNSS; precise point positioning (PPP); time and frequency transfer; receiver clock offset modeling multi-GNSS; precise point positioning (PPP); time and frequency transfer; receiver clock offset modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ge, Y.; Dai, P.; Qin, W.; Yang, X.; Zhou, F.; Wang, S.; Zhao, X. Performance of Multi-GNSS Precise Point Positioning Time and Frequency Transfer with Clock Modeling. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 347.

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