The Moon provides us with a long-term, stable, and unique place for Earth observation. Space agencies of various countries, including the United States, China, and Italy, have made the realization of Moon-based Earth observation an objective of their lunar missions. To date, although some conceptual studies have been presented, an accurate geometric model for Moon-based Earth observation has not yet been described. This paper introduces such a geometric model, which connects the attitude of a Moon-based sensor with a corresponding field of view on the Earth’s surface. The aberration and light time correction are involved. Due to the lack of high-quality experimental data, one qualitative comparison with Chang’E lander images and another quantitative comparison with software output are made. The comparison results show good similarity. The overall model accuracy is evaluated to be better than 4″ at current stage and will be better than 1.5″ if the seleno-graphic position is accurately determined. In direct geolocation process, the aberration and light time will cause a total 0.7 km deviation on the ground near the sublunar point. In SAR range history simulation, the light time effect will lead to a linear error, as large as tens of meters, throughout the integration time.
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