Next Article in Journal
UAS for Wetland Mapping and Hydrological Modeling
Next Article in Special Issue
Denoising Algorithm for the FY-4A GIIRS Based on Principal Component Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Attention-Based Deep Feature Fusion for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Tropospheric Path Delay Estimates from GNSS and Space-Borne SAR Interferometry in Alpine Conditions
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Improved Empirical Coefficients for Estimating Water Vapor Weighted Mean Temperature over Europe for GNSS Applications

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171995
Received: 20 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers for Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
Development of the so-called global navigation satellite system (GNSS) meteorology is based on the possibility of determining a precipitable water vapor (PWV) from a GNSS zenith wet delay (ZWD). Conversion of ZWD to the PWV requires application of water vapor weighted mean temperature ( T m ) measurements, which can be done using a surface temperature ( T s ) and its linear dependency to the T m . In this study we analyzed up to 24 years (1994–2018) of data from 49 radio-sounding (RS) stations over Europe to determine reliable coefficients of the T m T s relationship. Their accuracy was verified using 109 RS stations. The analysis showed that for most of the stations, there are visible differences between coefficients estimated for the time of day and night. Consequently, the ETm4 model containing coefficients determined four times a day is presented. For hours other than the primary synoptic hours, linear interpolation was used. However, since this approach was not enough in some cases, we applied the dependence of T m T s coefficients on the time of day using a polynomial (ETmPoly model). This resulted in accuracy at the level of 2.8 ± 0.3 K. We also conducted an analysis of the impact of this model on the PWV GNSS. Analysis showed that differences in PWV reached 0.8 mm compared to other commonly used models. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; water vapor mean temperature; PWV; radio sounding; troposphere GNSS; water vapor mean temperature; PWV; radio sounding; troposphere
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Baldysz, Z.; Nykiel, G. Improved Empirical Coefficients for Estimating Water Vapor Weighted Mean Temperature over Europe for GNSS Applications. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1995.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop