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Open AccessArticle

The 2017 Noneruptive Unrest at the Caldera of Cerro Azul Volcano (Galápagos Islands) Revealed by InSAR Observations and Geodetic Modelling

by 1, 1,2,3, Yangmao Wen 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3 and 1
1
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171992
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 23 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SAR for Natural Hazard )
An unrest event occurred at the Cerro Azul volcano, Galápagos Islands, South America, in March 2017, leading to significant surface deformation on the southern Isabela Island, without eruption or surface rupture. We collected single-look complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images sensed by the Sentinel-1A satellite, obtaining eight differential interferograms, of which four showed extensive surface displacement during the co-unrest period. Geodetic data indicated that the unrest continued from 18 March to 25 March, reaching a negative peak displacement of −32.9 cm in the caldera and a positive peak displacement of 41.8 cm on the south-east plain in the line-of-sight direction. A joint magma source deformation model, consisting of a Mogi source below the caldera and a sill source south-east of the caldera, was inverted by the Markov chain Monte Carlo method combined with the Metropolis–Hasting algorithm, acquiring the best fit with the four interferograms. The magma transport mechanism of the event was explained by magma overflowing from the compressive Mogi to the tensile sill source, resulting in the observed “∞”-shaped deformation fields. Additionally, we investigated previous events with eruption rifts and lava lakes in 1979, 1998, and 2008, and proposed a potential hazard of tectonic volcanic activity for further volcanic susceptibility research in the Cerro Azul area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cerro Azul volcano; InSAR; source model; geodetic inversion; volcanic hazard Cerro Azul volcano; InSAR; source model; geodetic inversion; volcanic hazard
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Guo, Q.; Xu, C.; Wen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xu, G. The 2017 Noneruptive Unrest at the Caldera of Cerro Azul Volcano (Galápagos Islands) Revealed by InSAR Observations and Geodetic Modelling. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1992.

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