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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071043

Bio-Optical Characterization and Ocean Colour Inversion in the Eastern Lagoon of New Caledonia, South Tropical Pacific

1
National Institute for Space Research, Remote Sensing Division, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São Jose dos Campos 12227-010, Brazil
2
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 8810 Shellback Way, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Institute of Coastal Research Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany
4
University of Sorbonne, CNRS, Villefranche Oceanographic Laboratory, LOV, 181 Chemin du Lazaret, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
5
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305-8505, Japan
6
Aix-Marseille University, Univ. Toulon, IRD, CNRS, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, UM110, MIO, at Centre IRD de Nouméa, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour)
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Abstract

The Eastern Lagoon of New Caledonia (ELNC) is a semi-enclosed system surrounded by an extensive coral reef barrier. The system has been suffering impacts from climate variability and anthropogenic activities, including mining exploitation. Satellite monitoring is thus an essential tool to detect such changes. The present study aimed to assess the bio-optical variability of the ELNC and examine the applicability of ocean colour algorithms, using in situ bio-optical and radiometric data, collected during the March 2014 CALIOPE 2 cruise. The chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) varied from 0.13–0.72 mg·m−3, and the coastal stations were spectrally dominated by non-algal particles (NAP) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (>80% of the total non-water absorption at 443 nm), due to the contribution of allochthonous sources. The phytoplankton specific absorption was generally lower (mean, 0.049 m2·mg Chla−1) than typical values observed for the corresponding Chla range, as well as the spectral slopes of the absorption of CDOM plus NAP (adg) (mean, 0.016 nm−1) and of the particle backscattering coefficient (bbp) (mean, 0.07 nm−1). The remote sensing reflectance obtained using two in-water approaches and modelled from Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) showed less than 20% relative percent differences (RPD). Chla estimates were highly biased for the empirical (OC4 and OC3) and semi-analytical (GSM, QAA, GIOP, LMI) algorithms, especially at the coastal stations. Excluding these stations, the GSM01 yielded the best retrievals with 35–40% RPD. adg(443) was well retrieved by all algorithms with ~18% RPD, and bbp(443) with ~40% RPD. Turbidity algorithms also performed reasonably well (30% RPD), showing the capacity and usefulness of the derived products to monitor the water quality of the ELNC, provided accurate atmospheric correction of the satellite data. Regionally tuned algorithms may potentially improve the Chla retrievals, but better parameterization schemes that consider the spatiotemporal variability of the specific IOPs are still needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine remote sensing reflectance; bio-optical properties; ocean colour algorithms; eastern lagoon of New Caledonia; Southwest Tropical Pacific Ocean marine remote sensing reflectance; bio-optical properties; ocean colour algorithms; eastern lagoon of New Caledonia; Southwest Tropical Pacific Ocean
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Favareto, L.R.; Rudorff, N.; Kampel, M.; Frouin, R.; Röttgers, R.; Doxaran, D.; Murakami, H.; Dupouy, C. Bio-Optical Characterization and Ocean Colour Inversion in the Eastern Lagoon of New Caledonia, South Tropical Pacific. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1043.

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