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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020189

Stability Monitoring of the VIIRS Day/Night Band over Dome C with a Lunar Irradiance Model and BRDF Correction

1
Key Laboratory of Quantitative Remote Sensing Information Technology, Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract

The unique feature of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band (DNB) is its ability to take quantitative measurements of low-light scenes at night. In order to monitor the stability of the high gain stage (HGS) of the DNB, nighttime observations over the Dome C site under moonlight are analyzed in this study. The Miller and Turner 2009 (MT2009) lunar irradiance model has been used to simulate lunar illumination over Dome C. However, the MT2009 model does not differentiate the waxing and waning lunar phases. In this paper, the MT-SWC (SeaWiFS Corrected) lunar irradiance model differentiating the waxing and waning lunar phases is derived by correcting the MT2009 model using lunar observations made by the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS). In addition, a top of atmosphere (TOA) bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model during nighttime over Dome C is developed to remove the angular dependence from the nighttime TOA reflectance. The long-term stability monitoring of the DNB high-gain stage (HGS) reveals a lower reflectance factor in 2012 in comparison to the following years, which can be traced back to the change in relative spectral response (RSR) of National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) VIIRS DNB in April 2013. It also shows the radiometric stability of DNB data, with long-term stability of less than 1.58% over the periods from 2013 to 2016. This method can be used to monitor the radiometric stability of other low-light observing sensors using vicarious calibration sites under moonlight illumination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); day/night Band (DNB); Miller and Turner 2009 (MT2009); Dome C site; Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS); lunar observations; BRDF effect Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); day/night Band (DNB); Miller and Turner 2009 (MT2009); Dome C site; Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS); lunar observations; BRDF effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zeng, X.; Shao, X.; Qiu, S.; Ma, L.; Gao, C.; Li, C. Stability Monitoring of the VIIRS Day/Night Band over Dome C with a Lunar Irradiance Model and BRDF Correction. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 189.

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