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Open AccessArticle

Ground Deformation and Source Geometry of the 30 October 2016 Mw 6.5 Norcia Earthquake (Central Italy) Investigated Through Seismological Data, DInSAR Measurements, and Numerical Modelling

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell’Ambiente, IREA-CNR, 80124 Napoli, Italy
3
Consiglio delle Nazionale Ricerche, IGAG, c.o. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
4
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), 00143 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121901
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 25 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Tectonic Deformation)
We investigate the Mw 6.5 Norcia (Central Italy) earthquake by exploiting seismological data, DInSAR measurements, and a numerical modelling approach. In particular, we first retrieve the vertical component (uplift and subsidence) of the displacements affecting the hangingwall and the footwall blocks of the seismogenic faults identified, at depth, through the hypocenters distribution analysis. To do this, we combine the DInSAR measurements obtained from coseismic SAR data pairs collected by the ALOS-2 sensor from ascending and descending orbits. The achieved vertical deformation map displays three main deformation patterns: (i) a major subsidence that reaches the maximum value of about 98 cm near the epicentral zones nearby the town of Norcia; (ii) two smaller uplift lobes that affect both the hangingwall (reaching maximum values of about 14 cm) and the footwall blocks (reaching maximum values of about 10 cm). Starting from this evidence, we compute the rock volumes affected by uplift and subsidence phenomena, highlighting that those involved by the retrieved subsidence are characterized by significantly higher deformation values than those affected by uplift (about 14 times). In order to provide a possible interpretation of this volumetric asymmetry, we extend our analysis by applying a 2D numerical modelling approach based on the finite element method, implemented in a structural-mechanic framework, and exploiting the available geological and seismological data, and the ground deformation measurements retrieved from the multi-orbit ALOS-2 DInSAR analysis. In this case, we consider two different scenarios: the first one based on a single SW-dipping fault, the latter on a main SW-dipping fault and an antithetic zone. In this context, the model characterized by the occurrence of an antithetic zone presents the retrieved best fit coseismic surface deformation pattern. This result allows us to interpret the subsidence and uplift phenomena caused by the Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquake as the result of the gravitational sliding of the hangingwall along the main fault plane and the frictional force acting in the opposite direction, consistently with the double couple fault plane mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Norcia earthquake; ALOS-2 DInSAR measurements; seismogenic volumes computation; 2D finite element model; normal faulting Norcia earthquake; ALOS-2 DInSAR measurements; seismogenic volumes computation; 2D finite element model; normal faulting
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Valerio, E.; Tizzani, P.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.; Pepe, S.; Petricca, P.; De Luca, C.; Bignami, C.; Solaro, G.; Castaldo, R.; De Novellis, V.; Lanari, R. Ground Deformation and Source Geometry of the 30 October 2016 Mw 6.5 Norcia Earthquake (Central Italy) Investigated Through Seismological Data, DInSAR Measurements, and Numerical Modelling. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1901.

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