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Article

Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record

by 1,*,†,‡, 2,‡ and 1,‡
1
National Snow & Ice Data Center, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: 449 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111793
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Essential Climate Variables and Their Applications)
Since the late 1970s, satellite passive-microwave brightness temperatures have been a mainstay in remote sensing of the cryosphere. Polar snow and ice-covered ocean and land surfaces are especially sensitive to climate change and are observed to fluctuate on interannual to decadal timescales. In regions of limited sunlight and cloudy conditions, microwave measurements are particularly valuable for monitoring snow- and ice-covered ocean and land surfaces, due to microwave sensitivity to phase changes of water. Historically available at relatively low resolutions (25 km) compared to optical techniques (less than 1 km), passive-microwave sensors have provided short-timescale, large-area spatial coverage, and high temporal repeat observations for monitoring hemispheric-wide changes. However, historically available gridded passive microwave products have fallen short of modern requirements for climate data records, notably by using inconsistently-calibrated input data, including only limited periods of sensor overlaps, employing image-reconstruction methods that tuned for reduced noise rather than enhanced resolution, and using projection and grid definitions that were not easily interpreted by geolocation software. Using a recently completed Fundamental Climate Data Record of the swath format passive-microwave record that incorporated new, cross-sensor calibrations, we have produced an improved, gridded data record. Defined on the EASE-Grid 2.0 map projections and derived with numerically efficient image-reconstruction techniques, the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record (ESDR) increases spatial resolution up to 3.125 km for the highest frequency channels, and satisfies modern Climate Data Record (CDR) requirements as defined by the National Research Council. We describe the best practices and development approaches that we used to ensure algorithmic integrity and to define and satisfy metadata, content and structural requirements for this high-quality, reliable, consistently gridded microwave radiometer climate data record. View Full-Text
Keywords: passive-microwave remote sensing; brightness temperatures; software tools; image reconstruction; Climate and Forecast Conventions; Climate and Forecast Metadata; Earth System Data Record; ESDR; Climate Data Record; CDR; EASE-Grid 2.0; netCDF passive-microwave remote sensing; brightness temperatures; software tools; image reconstruction; Climate and Forecast Conventions; Climate and Forecast Metadata; Earth System Data Record; ESDR; Climate Data Record; CDR; EASE-Grid 2.0; netCDF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brodzik, M.J.; Long, D.G.; Hardman, M.A. Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1793. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111793

AMA Style

Brodzik MJ, Long DG, Hardman MA. Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record. Remote Sensing. 2018; 10(11):1793. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111793

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brodzik, Mary J., David G. Long, and Molly A. Hardman 2018. "Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record" Remote Sensing 10, no. 11: 1793. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111793

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