Next Article in Journal
Economic Values and Resource Use
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis of Household Yard Area Dynamics in the City of San Juan Using Multi-Scalar Social-Ecological Perspectives
Open AccessArticle

A Non-Parametric Delphi Approach to Foster Innovation Policy Debate in Spain

1
Department of Development Economics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain
2
Departamento Economía Aplicada I e Historia e Instituciones Económicas y Filosofía Moral, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos URJC, Madrid 28933, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8050487
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
The aim of this paper is to identify some changes needed in Spain’s innovation policy to fill the gap between its innovation results and those of other European countries in lieu of sustainable leadership. To do this we apply the Delphi methodology to experts from academia, business, and government. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional descriptive methods, we develop an inferential analysis by following a non-parametric bootstrap method which enables us to identify important changes that should be implemented. Particularly interesting is the support found for improving the interconnections among the relevant agents of the innovation system (instead of focusing exclusively in the provision of knowledge and technological inputs through R and D activities), or the support found for “soft” policy instruments aimed at providing a homogeneous framework to assess the innovation capabilities of firms (e.g., for funding purposes). Attention to potential innovators among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and traditional industries is particularly encouraged by experts. View Full-Text
Keywords: innovation policy; Delphi; bootstrap; intangibles; intellectual capital; Spain innovation policy; Delphi; bootstrap; intangibles; intellectual capital; Spain
MDPI and ACS Style

Salazar-Elena, J.C.; Sánchez, M.P.; Otamendi, F.J. A Non-Parametric Delphi Approach to Foster Innovation Policy Debate in Spain. Sustainability 2016, 8, 487.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop