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Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 487;

A Non-Parametric Delphi Approach to Foster Innovation Policy Debate in Spain

Department of Development Economics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain
Departamento Economía Aplicada I e Historia e Instituciones Económicas y Filosofía Moral, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos URJC, Madrid 28933, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Full-Text   |   PDF [299 KB, uploaded 18 May 2016]


The aim of this paper is to identify some changes needed in Spain’s innovation policy to fill the gap between its innovation results and those of other European countries in lieu of sustainable leadership. To do this we apply the Delphi methodology to experts from academia, business, and government. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional descriptive methods, we develop an inferential analysis by following a non-parametric bootstrap method which enables us to identify important changes that should be implemented. Particularly interesting is the support found for improving the interconnections among the relevant agents of the innovation system (instead of focusing exclusively in the provision of knowledge and technological inputs through R and D activities), or the support found for “soft” policy instruments aimed at providing a homogeneous framework to assess the innovation capabilities of firms (e.g., for funding purposes). Attention to potential innovators among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and traditional industries is particularly encouraged by experts. View Full-Text
Keywords: innovation policy; Delphi; bootstrap; intangibles; intellectual capital; Spain innovation policy; Delphi; bootstrap; intangibles; intellectual capital; Spain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Salazar-Elena, J.C.; Sánchez, M.P.; Otamendi, F.J. A Non-Parametric Delphi Approach to Foster Innovation Policy Debate in Spain. Sustainability 2016, 8, 487.

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