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An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions

Building and Urban Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Daehwa-dong 283, Goyandae-Ro, ILsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si 10223, Korea
School of Architecture & Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-Gu, Ansan-Si 15588, Korea
Department of Construction Management, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA
Department of Plant & Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-Si 16227, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 361;
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
An optimization system that supports the production of concrete while minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or costs is presented that incorporates an evolution algorithm for the materials’ mix design stage, a trigonometric function for the transportation stage, and a stochastic model for the manufacturing stage. A case study demonstrates that applying the optimization system reduced CO2 emissions by 34% compared to the standard concrete production processes typically used. When minimizing the cost of concrete production was prioritized, the cost dropped by 1% compared to the cost of conventional concrete production. These findings confirm that this optimization system helps with the design of the concrete mix and the choice of a material supplier, thus reducing both CO2 emissions and costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost
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Kim, T.H.; Tae, S.H.; Suk, S.J.; Ford, G.; Yang, K.H. An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 361.

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