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Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 361;

An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions

Building and Urban Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Daehwa-dong 283, Goyandae-Ro, ILsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si 10223, Korea
School of Architecture & Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-Gu, Ansan-Si 15588, Korea
Department of Construction Management, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA
Department of Plant & Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-Si 16227, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3347 KB, uploaded 13 April 2016]   |  


An optimization system that supports the production of concrete while minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or costs is presented that incorporates an evolution algorithm for the materials’ mix design stage, a trigonometric function for the transportation stage, and a stochastic model for the manufacturing stage. A case study demonstrates that applying the optimization system reduced CO2 emissions by 34% compared to the standard concrete production processes typically used. When minimizing the cost of concrete production was prioritized, the cost dropped by 1% compared to the cost of conventional concrete production. These findings confirm that this optimization system helps with the design of the concrete mix and the choice of a material supplier, thus reducing both CO2 emissions and costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost

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Kim, T.H.; Tae, S.H.; Suk, S.J.; Ford, G.; Yang, K.H. An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 361.

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