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Article

Formal Modeling of IoT-Based Distribution Management System for Smart Grids

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Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad-Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
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Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer and Information Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mohammed H. Alsharif, Rosdiadee Nordin and Shehzad Ashraf Chaudhry
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084499
Received: 13 March 2022 / Revised: 4 April 2022 / Accepted: 6 April 2022 / Published: 10 April 2022
The smart grid is characterized as a power system that integrates real-time measurements, bi-directional communication, a two-way flow of electricity, and evolutionary computation. The power distribution system is a fundamental aspect of the electric power system in order to deliver safe, efficient, reliable, and resilient power to consumers. A distribution management system (DMS) begins with the extension of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system through a transmission network beyond the distribution network. These transmission networks oversee the distribution of energy generated at power plants to consumers via a complex system of transformers, substations, transmission lines, and distribution lines. The major challenges that existing distribution management systems are facing, maintaining constant power loads, user profiles, centralized communication, and the malfunctioning of system equipment and monitoring huge amounts of data of millions of micro-transactions, need to be addressed. Substation feeder protection abruptly shuts down power on the whole feeder in the event of a distribution network malfunction, causing service disruption to numerous end-user clients, including industrial, hospital, commercial, and residential users. Although there are already many traditional systems with the integration of smart things at present, there are few studies of those systems reporting runtime errors during their implementation and real-time use. This paper presents the systematic model of a distribution management system comprised of substations, distribution lines, and smart meters with the integration of Internet-of-Things (IoT), Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NFA), Unified Modeling Language (UML), and formal modeling approaches. Non-deterministic finite automata are used for automating the system procedures. UML is used to represent the actors involved in the distribution management system. Formal methods from the perspective of the Vienna Development Method-Specification Language (VDM-SL) are used for modeling the system. The model will be analyzed using the facilities available in the VDM-SL toolbox. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution management system; fault detection; formal methods; smart grid; unified modeling language; VDM-SL distribution management system; fault detection; formal methods; smart grid; unified modeling language; VDM-SL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kousar, S.; Zafar, N.A.; Ali, T.; Alkhammash, E.H.; Hadjouni, M. Formal Modeling of IoT-Based Distribution Management System for Smart Grids. Sustainability 2022, 14, 4499. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084499

AMA Style

Kousar S, Zafar NA, Ali T, Alkhammash EH, Hadjouni M. Formal Modeling of IoT-Based Distribution Management System for Smart Grids. Sustainability. 2022; 14(8):4499. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084499

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kousar, Shaheen, Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Tariq Ali, Eman H. Alkhammash, and Myriam Hadjouni. 2022. "Formal Modeling of IoT-Based Distribution Management System for Smart Grids" Sustainability 14, no. 8: 4499. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084499

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