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Article

Clustering of European Smart Cities to Understand the Cities’ Sustainability Strategies

1
ESPI2R, Campus Paris, ESPI, 92300 Paris, France
2
ESPI2R, Campus Nantes, ESPI, 44323 Nantes, France
3
ESPI2R, Campus Lyon, ESPI, 69009 Lyon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020513
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 7 January 2021
This paper analyzes the smart strategies of European cities through the dynamic capabilities approach. We develop a clustering of smart cities based on the activities implemented by the cities. Our methodology considers three steps. First, we establish an empirical assessment of the smart dimensions for 40 European cities. Then, we categorize and interpret core capabilities via a principal component analysis. Finally, we highlight a hierarchical ascending classification identifying three relevant groups of cities. As a result, the first cluster represents cities with emerging smart strategies. The second cluster regroups international metropolises, which have technology-oriented strategies to deal with specific challenges. The third cluster stands for middle-sized European cities with a good quality of life. Our outcomes show that there is not just one smart city but several smart cities emerging according to the cities’ environment. These findings enrich the analysis of smart cities’ dynamic capabilities and point out how these strategies make cities sustainable. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable smart cities; knowledge management; dynamic capabilities approach; principal component analysis (PCA); hierarchical ascending classification (HAC) sustainable smart cities; knowledge management; dynamic capabilities approach; principal component analysis (PCA); hierarchical ascending classification (HAC)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cantuarias-Villessuzanne, C.; Weigel, R.; Blain, J. Clustering of European Smart Cities to Understand the Cities’ Sustainability Strategies. Sustainability 2021, 13, 513. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020513

AMA Style

Cantuarias-Villessuzanne C, Weigel R, Blain J. Clustering of European Smart Cities to Understand the Cities’ Sustainability Strategies. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):513. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cantuarias-Villessuzanne, Carmen, Romain Weigel, and Jeffrey Blain. 2021. "Clustering of European Smart Cities to Understand the Cities’ Sustainability Strategies" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 513. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020513

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