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Calculating a Drop in Carbon Emissions in the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) from Domestic Shipping Traffic Caused by the COVID-19 Crisis

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Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar, College of Marine, Nautical and Radioelectronics Engineering, University of Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
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LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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School of Marine, Nautical and Radioelectronics Engineering, University of Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10368; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410368
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Spanish government declared a State of Emergency, and domestic passenger ship traffic was restricted in Spanish ports. This manuscript presents scenarios of emissions from domestic shipping traffic in the seas of the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) over three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emissions were estimated for only 90 days of the pandemic, and two scenarios were studied: emissions while vessels were berthed at the Algeciras Port and emissions as a consequence of the interruption of passenger ship transportation in the Strait of Gibraltar. To this end, the authors’ own model was used, which has near zero uncertainties. This model was used for the first time in this study and takes into account both meteorological and sea condition parameters, as well as the efficiency of the propulsion system. The manuscript concentrates on the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM) from six Ro-Pax ships that ceased to operate. The main finding is that as a consequence of the pandemic, reductions of up to 12% were found in the Strait of Gibraltar in all the pollutants and GHGs when taking into account all international traffic, while the decrease in emissions from domestic traffic only reached 51%. View Full-Text
Keywords: shipping emissions; greenhouse gases; Strait of Gibraltar; COVID-19; SENEM model shipping emissions; greenhouse gases; Strait of Gibraltar; COVID-19; SENEM model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Durán-Grados, V.; Amado-Sánchez, Y.; Calderay-Cayetano, F.; Rodríguez-Moreno, R.; Pájaro-Velázquez, E.; Ramírez-Sánchez, A.; Sousa, S.I.V.; Nunes, R.A.O.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, J. Calculating a Drop in Carbon Emissions in the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) from Domestic Shipping Traffic Caused by the COVID-19 Crisis. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10368. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410368

AMA Style

Durán-Grados V, Amado-Sánchez Y, Calderay-Cayetano F, Rodríguez-Moreno R, Pájaro-Velázquez E, Ramírez-Sánchez A, Sousa SIV, Nunes RAO, Alvim-Ferraz MCM, Moreno-Gutiérrez J. Calculating a Drop in Carbon Emissions in the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) from Domestic Shipping Traffic Caused by the COVID-19 Crisis. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10368. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Durán-Grados, Vanessa, Yolanda Amado-Sánchez, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Rubén Rodríguez-Moreno, Emilio Pájaro-Velázquez, Antonio Ramírez-Sánchez, Sofia I.V. Sousa, Rafael A.O. Nunes, Maria C.M. Alvim-Ferraz, and Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez. 2020. "Calculating a Drop in Carbon Emissions in the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) from Domestic Shipping Traffic Caused by the COVID-19 Crisis" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10368. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410368

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