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Article

Green Technology Approach for Reinforcement of Calcium Chloride Cured Sodium Alginate Films by Isolated Bacteria from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

1
School of Industrial Technology, Environmental Division, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
School of Industrial Technology, Bioresource, Paper and Coatings Division, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
3
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
4
School of Industrial Technology, Bioprocess Technology Division, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9468; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229468
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 7 October 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
The suitability of bacteria application as fillers to reinforce calcium chloride cured sodium alginate film was investigated through the determination of the physical, morphological and mechanical properties of composite films. There were six species of bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent sample. The bacteria sample selected for filler reinforcement has a sub-micron diameter of 0.83 ± 0.13 µm. The growth curve of selected bacteria revealed that four days of broth culture produced the maximum bacteria mass. The composite films were produced with reinforcement of 0.1 g, 0.2 g, 0.3 g and 0.4 g of bacteria respectively. Overall, the increment of bacteria mass resulted in the production of yellowish composite films with improved morphological, physical and mechanical properties. The results revealed that the composite films reinforced with 0.3 g and 0.4 g of bacteria appeared to have less curling on the surface of the film. The water absorption properties of the films were initially 140.74% and remained constant at an approximate of 200% after the reinforcement. The tensile strength properties showed a total increment of approximately 22.70% (from 36.10 ± 1.94 MPa to 44.29 ± 0.60 MPa). Based on the results, bacteria fillers were not able to enhance the elongation properties because only about 0.6% of overall increment was observed which was considered insignificant. It was concluded that the bacteria biomass has the potential to be used as fillers to reinforce calcium chloride cured sodium alginate film. View Full-Text
Keywords: alginate film; CaCl2 crosslinking process; bacillus bacteria; filler reinforcement; tensile properties alginate film; CaCl2 crosslinking process; bacillus bacteria; filler reinforcement; tensile properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, B.K.X.; Azahari, B.; Yhaya, M.F.B.; Talebi, A.; Ng, C.W.C.; Tajarudin, H.A.; Ismail, N. Green Technology Approach for Reinforcement of Calcium Chloride Cured Sodium Alginate Films by Isolated Bacteria from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Sustainability 2020, 12, 9468. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229468

AMA Style

Ho BKX, Azahari B, Yhaya MFB, Talebi A, Ng CWC, Tajarudin HA, Ismail N. Green Technology Approach for Reinforcement of Calcium Chloride Cured Sodium Alginate Films by Isolated Bacteria from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Sustainability. 2020; 12(22):9468. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Briant K.X., Baharin Azahari, Mohd F.B. Yhaya, Amir Talebi, Charles W.C. Ng, Husnul A. Tajarudin, and Norli Ismail. 2020. "Green Technology Approach for Reinforcement of Calcium Chloride Cured Sodium Alginate Films by Isolated Bacteria from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)" Sustainability 12, no. 22: 9468. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229468

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