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Present Status and Potential of Biomass Energy in Pakistan Based on Existing and Future Renewable Resources

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Department of Electrical Engineering, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876, China
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School of Software and Electrical Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
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School of Engineering, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3216, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010249
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Pakistan is a developing country that is experiencing a shortage of electricity generation due to its rapidly growing demand. The existing and upcoming energy requirements for power generation and future transportation can be met by efficient utilisation of homegrown biomass resources. Determining the present energy mix resources in various sectors of the country is important. This article analyses the biomass resources and their potential and bioenergy utilisation in Pakistan. An overview of the global renewable energy scenario is presented. This article accentuates the importance and challenges of new technologies and estimates the current and future share of power generation from renewable sources, focusing on the technical potential of biomass energy, which is obtained from agricultural residues, animal manure and municipal solid wastes in Pakistan. This paper highlights the developing technologies that are primarily used to convert biomass waste into energy and presents a critical consideration on future directions in drafting the bioenergy framework policy in Pakistan. For effective implementation of biomass-based renewable energy production in the country, this paper presents an extensive literature review on current and future perspectives and suggestions on future directions and policies to overcome the deficit in electricity supply and environmental concerns. Furthermore, this paper discusses the utilisation of biomass resources in the rapidly growing transportation sector and presents a solution for upcoming mass transit projects in two major cities in Pakistan. The conclusion is that biomass energy is the most sustainable, eco-friendly and efficient renewable energy and is an emerging renewable energy resource that can meet the growing energy demand in Pakistan. View Full-Text
Keywords: transportation; future energy mix; cattle waste; agriculture residues; municipal solid waste; renewable energy sources transportation; future energy mix; cattle waste; agriculture residues; municipal solid waste; renewable energy sources
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Tareen, W.U.K.; Dilbar, M.T.; Farhan, M.; Ali Nawaz, M.; Durrani, A.W.; Memon, K.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Horan, B.; Amir, M.; Aamir, M. Present Status and Potential of Biomass Energy in Pakistan Based on Existing and Future Renewable Resources. Sustainability 2020, 12, 249.

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