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Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061750

Evaluating the Efficacy of Zero-Emission Vehicle Deployment Strategies: The Maryland Case

1
School of Architecture and Art, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China
2
National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation for Sustainable Cities)
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Abstract

This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the impacts of zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) adoption on CO2 emissions and to evaluate efficacy of ZEV deployment strategies in achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals. We proposed a modeling scheme to represent ZEVs in four-step trip-based travel demand models. We then tested six ZEV scenarios that were a cross-combination of three ZEV ownership levels and two ZEV operating cost levels. The proposed modeling scheme and scenarios were implemented on the Maryland Statewide Transportation Model (MSTM) to analyze the impacts of different ZEV ownership and cost combinations on travel patterns and on CO2 emissions. The main findings were the following: (1) A high-ZEV ownership scenario (43.14% of households with ZEVs) could achieve about a 16% reduction in statewide carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2Eq) emissions from 2015 base year levels; and (2) CO2Eq emissions at a future year baseline (2030) (the Constrained Long-Range Plan) level dropped by approximately 11% in low-ZEV ownership scenarios, 17% in medium-ZEV ownership scenarios, and 32% in high-ZEV ownership scenarios. The high-ZEV ownership results also indicated a more balanced distribution of emissions per unit area or per vehicle mile traveled among different counties. View Full-Text
Keywords: zero-emission vehicles; travel demand model; scenario analysis; GHG emission; mode choice zero-emission vehicles; travel demand model; scenario analysis; GHG emission; mode choice
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Wang, Z.; Erdogan, S.; W. Ducca, F. Evaluating the Efficacy of Zero-Emission Vehicle Deployment Strategies: The Maryland Case. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1750.

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