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Global Variation in Climate, Human Development, and Population Density Has Implications for Urban Ecosystem Services

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Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore 138602, Singapore
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Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise, Singapore 138602, Singapore
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School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117566, Singapore
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School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, 4072 Brisbane, Australia
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Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117570, Singapore
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School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
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Chair of Planning of Landscape and Urban Systems, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6200; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226200
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Humans rely upon ecosystem services to regulate their environment and to provide resources and cultural benefits. As the world’s urban population grows, it becomes increasingly important to find ways of improving the provision of ecosystem services in urban areas. However, the kinds of ecosystem services that are most needed or demanded by urban populations, and the opportunities to provide these, vary widely in cities around the world. Here we explore variation in climate, Human Development Index (HDI), and population density, and discuss their implications for providing and managing urban ecosystem services. Using 221 published studies of urban ecosystem services, we analyse the extent to which existing research adequately covers global variation in climatic and social conditions. Our results reveal an under-representation of studies from tropical cities and from lower HDI countries, with implications for how we conceptualize and quantify urban ecosystem services, and how we transfer benefits across case studies. Future work should be aimed at correcting these deficits and determining the extent to which conclusions about urban ecosystem services are transferable from one city to another. View Full-Text
Keywords: green infrastructure; natural capital; sustainable development; urban ecology green infrastructure; natural capital; sustainable development; urban ecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Richards, D.; Masoudi, M.; Oh, R.R.Y.; Yando, E.S.; Zhang, J.; Friess, D.A.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Tan, P.Y.; Edwards, P.J. Global Variation in Climate, Human Development, and Population Density Has Implications for Urban Ecosystem Services. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6200. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226200

AMA Style

Richards D, Masoudi M, Oh RRY, Yando ES, Zhang J, Friess DA, Grêt-Regamey A, Tan PY, Edwards PJ. Global Variation in Climate, Human Development, and Population Density Has Implications for Urban Ecosystem Services. Sustainability. 2019; 11(22):6200. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226200

Chicago/Turabian Style

Richards, Daniel, Mahyar Masoudi, Rachel R.Y. Oh, Erik S. Yando, Jingyuan Zhang, Daniel A. Friess, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Puay Y. Tan, and Peter J. Edwards. 2019. "Global Variation in Climate, Human Development, and Population Density Has Implications for Urban Ecosystem Services" Sustainability 11, no. 22: 6200. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226200

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