Next Article in Journal
Changes in Risk Perception of Seoul National University Students in Nuclear Power under Opposing Government Policy
Next Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Mineral Resource Management—Insights into the Case of Phosphorus
Previous Article in Journal
Sectoral Energy Demand Forecasting under an Assumption-Free Data-Driven Technique
Previous Article in Special Issue
Transition of the Swiss Phosphorus System towards a Circular Economy—Part 2: Socio-Technical Scenarios
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2349; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072349

Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones

1
Terra Humana Ltd., Biofarm Agri Research Station, Kajászó H-2472, Hungary
2
Università Degli Studi di Torino, Agroinnova and DISAFA, Grugliasco (TO) 10095, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [287 KB, uploaded 6 July 2018]

Abstract

Disrupted nutrient recycling is a significant problem for Europe, while phosphorus and nitrogen are wasted instead of being used for plant nutrition. Mineral phosphate is a critical raw material, which may contain environmentally hazardous elements such as cadmium and uranium. Therefore, phosphorus recovery from agricultural and food industrial by-product streams is a critically important key priority. Phosphorus recovery from food grade animal bone by-products have been researched since 2002 and a specific zero emission autothermal carbonization system, called 3R, has been developed in economical industrial scale, providing the animal bone char product (ABC) as output. Different animal bone by-products were tested under different conditions at 400 kg/h throughput capacity in the continuously operated 3R system. Different material core treatment temperatures (between >300 °C and <850 °C) were combined with different residence times under industrial productive processing conditions. It was demonstrated that material core treatment temperature <850 °C with 20 min residence time is necessary to achieve high quality ABC with useful agronomic value. The output ABC product has concentrated >30% phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), making it a high quality innovative fertilizer. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-phosphate; ABC Animal-Bone-Char; 3R pyrolysis; phosphorus recovery; animal by-products; apatite bio-phosphate; ABC Animal-Bone-Char; 3R pyrolysis; phosphorus recovery; animal by-products; apatite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Someus, E.; Pugliese, M. Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2349.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top