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Open AccessArticle

Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones

1
Terra Humana Ltd., Biofarm Agri Research Station, Kajászó H-2472, Hungary
2
Università Degli Studi di Torino, Agroinnova and DISAFA, Grugliasco (TO) 10095, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2349; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072349
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
Disrupted nutrient recycling is a significant problem for Europe, while phosphorus and nitrogen are wasted instead of being used for plant nutrition. Mineral phosphate is a critical raw material, which may contain environmentally hazardous elements such as cadmium and uranium. Therefore, phosphorus recovery from agricultural and food industrial by-product streams is a critically important key priority. Phosphorus recovery from food grade animal bone by-products have been researched since 2002 and a specific zero emission autothermal carbonization system, called 3R, has been developed in economical industrial scale, providing the animal bone char product (ABC) as output. Different animal bone by-products were tested under different conditions at 400 kg/h throughput capacity in the continuously operated 3R system. Different material core treatment temperatures (between >300 °C and <850 °C) were combined with different residence times under industrial productive processing conditions. It was demonstrated that material core treatment temperature <850 °C with 20 min residence time is necessary to achieve high quality ABC with useful agronomic value. The output ABC product has concentrated >30% phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), making it a high quality innovative fertilizer. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-phosphate; ABC Animal-Bone-Char; 3R pyrolysis; phosphorus recovery; animal by-products; apatite bio-phosphate; ABC Animal-Bone-Char; 3R pyrolysis; phosphorus recovery; animal by-products; apatite
MDPI and ACS Style

Someus, E.; Pugliese, M. Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072349

AMA Style

Someus E, Pugliese M. Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones. Sustainability. 2018; 10(7):2349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072349

Chicago/Turabian Style

Someus, Edward; Pugliese, Massimo. 2018. "Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones" Sustainability 10, no. 7: 2349. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072349

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