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Open AccessReview

Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review

1
Postgrado en Agroecosistemas Tropicales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Veracruz, Veracruz 91700, Mexico
2
Departamento de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Pinotepa, Tecnologico Nacional de México, Oaxaca 71600, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041210
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping Agroecology in Europe. New Developments and Applications)
The concept of Agroecology is still not widely discussed in European countries. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a qualitative and quantitative mixed analysis of this conceptualization based on research papers to provide initial answers to the following questions: How has the agroecology been used in terms of social movement, science and agricultural practice in the European countries? At which scales has it been applied? Which factors have influenced its application? Speech analysis and multivariable techniques are applied to systematized information. According to found results, the concept of agroecology is mainly conceived as science, then as practice and to a lesser degree as a social movement. There is a predominance of studies at plot level, with a tendency to include physical-biological factors; and at agroecosystem, regional and agri-food system levels, including designers, landscapes and consumers. There is a conceptual evolution in extensive quantitative and intensive qualitative standings when the agroecology incorporates more factors, such as economic, social, and, to a lesser extent, cultural and political, and becomes more transdisciplinary as a response to more complex phenomena that support the genesis and development of this concept. In this regard, a greater balance between its conceptions (science, practice and social movement) is recommended to achieve a better dialogue between abstract and empirical levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: transdiscipline; sustainability; agroecosystems; agri-food systems transdiscipline; sustainability; agroecosystems; agri-food systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallardo-López, F.; Hernández-Chontal, M.A.; Cisneros-Saguilán, P.; Linares-Gabriel, A. Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041210

AMA Style

Gallardo-López F, Hernández-Chontal MA, Cisneros-Saguilán P, Linares-Gabriel A. Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review. Sustainability. 2018; 10(4):1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041210

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gallardo-López, Felipe; Hernández-Chontal, Mario A.; Cisneros-Saguilán, Pedro; Linares-Gabriel, Ariadna. 2018. "Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review" Sustainability 10, no. 4: 1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041210

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