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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Towards Sustainable Urban Communities: A Composite Spatial Accessibility Assessment for Residential Suitability Based on Network Big Data
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124767 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Suitable allocation of residential public services is vital to realizing sustainable communities and cities. By combining network big data and spatial analysis, we developed a composite spatial accessibility assessment method for residential suitability of urban public services covering healthcare, leisure, commerce, transportation, and
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Suitable allocation of residential public services is vital to realizing sustainable communities and cities. By combining network big data and spatial analysis, we developed a composite spatial accessibility assessment method for residential suitability of urban public services covering healthcare, leisure, commerce, transportation, and education services. Xiamen City, China is the test site. We found that although most facilities were concentrated on Xiamen Island, there were shortages in the per capita transportation and education service supplements compared with the average performance of Xiamen City because of the high local population. Meanwhile, Tong’an had advantages in the amount of public facilities due to its long history of regional development. However, high-quality facilities were deficient there as well as in other off-island districts. The residential communities surrounding transportation, commerce, and healthcare facilities had a similar allocation pattern in Xiamen City, whereas the residential accessibility of education and leisure services showed regional differences. Due to unbalanced regional development, evident inequality could be witnessed by comparing the composite assessment results of residential suitability between the communities on Xiamen Island and those in the off-island Areas. Our study hopes to provide dedicated support for designing sustainable communities and cities, especially for those in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Research for Social Sciences and Social Impact)
Open AccessArticle The Impacts of Tourism Development in Rural Indigenous Destinations: An Investigation of the Local Residents’ Perception Using Choice Modeling
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4766; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124766 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Since indigenous areas have profound ethnic culture and ecological significance and sensitivity, successful tourism development must consider the perceptions of the indigenous community in order to build a mutual relationship grounded on respect and feasibility. The local indigenous communities are influenced by both
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Since indigenous areas have profound ethnic culture and ecological significance and sensitivity, successful tourism development must consider the perceptions of the indigenous community in order to build a mutual relationship grounded on respect and feasibility. The local indigenous communities are influenced by both the positive and negative impacts of tourism. To recognize which tourism impacts are most anticipated and concerning, we determined which and to what extent tourism impacts affect indigenous hosts’ support of alternatives for tourism plans. We used discrete choice modeling in the experiment design for empirical data collection and used mixed-logistic regression to evaluate the influence of each impact on local residents’ perceptions. We rank the effects of socio-culture, economic, and environmental tourism impacts. Our findings suggest that culture-related impacts most improve indigenous residents’ tourism development support. The residents expect economic impacts on both the regional and local scales. However, the results show a willingness to accept pollution following increased tourism. The residents have an adverse opinion of practices that are likely to cause environmental damage. The potential for conflict between local residents and tourists is not important to the local residents. This study contributes essential information to the understanding of tourism impacts from an indigenous perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Population and Social Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Steel and Polyolefin Fibres in the La Canda Tunnels: Applying MIVES for Assessing Sustainability Evaluation
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4765; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124765 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Construction involves the use of significant quantities of raw materials and entails high-energy consumption. For the sake of choosing the most appropriate solution that considers environmental and sustainable concepts, tools such as the integrated value model for sustainable assessment (Modelo Integrado de Valor
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Construction involves the use of significant quantities of raw materials and entails high-energy consumption. For the sake of choosing the most appropriate solution that considers environmental and sustainable concepts, tools such as the integrated value model for sustainable assessment (Modelo Integrado de Valor para una Evaluación Sostenible, MIVES) used in Spain, plays a key role in obtaining the best solution. MIVES is a multi-criteria decision-making method based on the value function concept and the seminars delivered by experts. Such tools, in order to show how they may work, require application to case studies. In this paper, two concrete slabs manufactured with differing reinforcements during the construction of the La Canda Tunnels are compared by means of MIVES. The two concrete slabs were reinforced with a conventional steel-mesh and with polyolefin fibres. This research was focussed on the main aspects affecting the construction. That is to say, the environmental, economic, and social factors were assessed by the method, being of special impact the issues related with maintenance of the structure. The results showed that from the point of view of sustainability, the use of polyolefin fibres provided a significant advantage, mainly due to the lower maintenance required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cementitious Materials for the Construction Industry)
Open AccessArticle Smart Technology Impact on Neighborhood Form for a Sustainable Doha
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124764 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
This study focuses on the significance of neighborhoods in a city as the smallest self-sufficient urban units akin to nuclear families in the larger society. Thus, improvements to the neighborhood form can improve livability, maximize walkability, and better the overall life quality of
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This study focuses on the significance of neighborhoods in a city as the smallest self-sufficient urban units akin to nuclear families in the larger society. Thus, improvements to the neighborhood form can improve livability, maximize walkability, and better the overall life quality of city inhabitants, which, in turn, advance a city’s overall environmental and social sustainability profile. The physical form (arrangement) and density of neighborhoods are primarily shaped by land ownership regulations, transportation, and communication means. The development of smart technology, especially in the fields of transportation and communication, has led to the reconsideration of some of sustainable urban form concepts such as neighborhoods. Low-density cities like Doha, Qatar can become both sustainable and livable, creating the basis for a sustainable city. First, this paper presents a critical review of Doha’s neighborhoods and advanced transport and communication technologies, in addition to the integration of these technologies with the physical form of neighborhoods. Then, the paper discusses the influences of such technologies on the future sustainability of the city of Doha and its neighborhoods. This investigation is based on a Delphi study to address the characteristics of a neighborhood and to identify two paradigms of ‘good’ design practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling the Impacts of Conservation Agriculture with a Drip Irrigation System on the Hydrology and Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4763; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124763 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
The agricultural system in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is dominated by traditional farming practices with poor soil and water management, which contributes to soil degradation and low crop productivity. This study integrated field experiments and a field-scale biophysical model (Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender, APEX)
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The agricultural system in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is dominated by traditional farming practices with poor soil and water management, which contributes to soil degradation and low crop productivity. This study integrated field experiments and a field-scale biophysical model (Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender, APEX) to investigate the impacts of conservation agriculture (CA) with a drip irrigation system on the hydrology and water management as compared to the conventional tillage (CT) practice. Field data were collected from four study sites; Dangishita and Robit (Ethiopia), Yemu (Ghana), and Mkindo (Tanzania) to validate APEX for hydrology and crop yield simulation. Each study site consisted of 100 m2 plots divided equally between CA and CT practices and both had a drip irrigation setup. Cropping pattern, management practices, and irrigation scheduling were monitored for each experimental plot. Significant water savings (α = 0.05) were observed under CA practice; evapotranspiration and runoff were reduced by up to 49% and 62%, respectively, whereas percolation increased up to three-fold. Consequently, irrigation water need was reduced in CA plots by about 14–35% for various crops. CA coupled with drip irrigation was found to be an efficient water saving technology and has substantial potential to sustain and intensify crop production in the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Vehicle-Pedestrian Collision Hotspots at the Micro-Level Using Network Kernel Density Estimation and Random Forests: A Case Study in Shanghai, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4762; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124762 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
The improvement of pedestrian safety plays a crucial role in developing a safe and friendly walking environments, which can contribute to urban sustainability. A preliminary step in improving pedestrian safety is to identify hazardous road locations for pedestrians. This study proposes a framework
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The improvement of pedestrian safety plays a crucial role in developing a safe and friendly walking environments, which can contribute to urban sustainability. A preliminary step in improving pedestrian safety is to identify hazardous road locations for pedestrians. This study proposes a framework for the identification of vehicle-pedestrian collision hot spots by integrating the information about both the likelihood of the occurrence of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and the potential for the reduction in vehicle-pedestrian crashes. First, a vehicle-pedestrian collision density surface was produced via network kernel density estimation. By assigning a threshold value, possible vehicle-pedestrian hot spots were identified. To obtain the potential for vehicle-pedestrian collision reduction, random forests was employed to model the density with a set of variables describing vehicle and pedestrian flows. The potential for crash reduction was then measured as the difference between the observed vehicle-pedestrian crash density and the prediction produced by the random forests models. The final hotspots were determined by excluding those with a crash reduction value of no more than zero. The method was applied to the identification of hazardous road locations for pedestrians in a district in Shanghai, China. The result indicates that the method is useful for decision-making support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Inventory Management for Environmental Impact through Partial Backordering and Multi-Trade-Credit-Period
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4761; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124761 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Incorporation of sustainable management for the rework of defective items brings long lasting benefits. In global business, there are situations when the products are procured from a global supplier. There are chances that the received lot may contain a fraction of imperfect products.
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Incorporation of sustainable management for the rework of defective items brings long lasting benefits. In global business, there are situations when the products are procured from a global supplier. There are chances that the received lot may contain a fraction of imperfect products. These imperfect products are still valuable and can be repairable to save the environment. It is sustainable to repair imperfect items in a local repair store as compared to sending it back to the supplier. The cost of carbon emissions is also incorporated in the function to incorporate the environmental impact on total profit. Meanwhile, the supplier also offers a multi-trade-credit-period to the buyer. The developed model is sustainable and reduces the environmental impact as well as benefits for interim financing. This paper has an objective to maximize the total profit by developing a synergic economic order quantity model by considering multi-trade-credit policy, rework, and shortages simultaneously. This model can help in making decisions to enhance the performance of sustainable inventory management by controlling the cycle time and a fraction of time for a global supply chain. A non-derivative approach is employed to develop a closed-form optimal result. The numerical illustration with sensitivity analysis is also drawn to provide managerial insights into real practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Collaboration between Heterogeneous Practitioners in Sustainability Research: A Comparative Analysis of Three Transdisciplinary Programmes
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4760; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124760 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
There is wide agreement about the importance of transdisciplinary research to address complex sustainability issues. Although there is a growing body of literature about the management of transdisciplinary research programmes as well as the challenges relating to the collaboration between academic researchers and
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There is wide agreement about the importance of transdisciplinary research to address complex sustainability issues. Although there is a growing body of literature about the management of transdisciplinary research programmes as well as the challenges relating to the collaboration between academic researchers and practitioners, empirical research has to date paid little attention to the challenges related to the variation of practitioners involved in these programmes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three transdisciplinary programmes addressing climate change and sustainability and identifies factors that contribute to fruitful collaboration between heterogeneous practitioners. Contrary to what could be expected from the literature, differences between the practitioners involved have only created significant issues in one of the programmes, and this programme has developed a way to cope with this difficulty. Effective strategies to avoid and limit tensions among practitioners include a focus on bilateral collaborations, the careful selection of programme participants, and the appointment of dedicated project monitors who are responsible for social learning processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Model Linking Physical Asset Management to Sustainability Performance: An Empirical Research
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4759; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124759 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
This article is aimed at exploring the relationship between physical asset management (PAM) practices and sustainability performance. A framework of interrelated constructs was developed based on the existing literature and consequently tested through empirical study. Survey data were collected from organizations operating in
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This article is aimed at exploring the relationship between physical asset management (PAM) practices and sustainability performance. A framework of interrelated constructs was developed based on the existing literature and consequently tested through empirical study. Survey data were collected from organizations operating in six European countries (i.e., Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, and Turkey) and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM). The results offer support for the proposed hypotheses, showing that PAM practices positively influence the sustainability performance outcomes, namely economic, environmental, and employee-related social performance. Overall, this study demonstrates that a PAM framework can be conceptualized by four sub-constructs, namely physical asset risk management, physical asset performance assessment, physical asset lifecycle management, and physical asset policy and strategy. Finally, this study brings to light some theoretical and managerial implications as well as directions for future research. The findings of the study underscore PAM areas in which managers should focus on in order to optimize costs, performance, and risk exposures concerning the physical assets, and therefore enhance sustainability performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Is Big Good or Bad?: Testing the Performance of Urban Growth Cellular Automata Simulation at Different Spatial Extents
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124758 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
The accurate prediction of urban growth is pivotal for managing urbanization, especially in fast-urbanizing countries. For this purpose, cellular automata-based (CA) simulation tools have been widely developed and applied. Previous studies have extensively discussed various model building and calibration techniques to improve simulation
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The accurate prediction of urban growth is pivotal for managing urbanization, especially in fast-urbanizing countries. For this purpose, cellular automata-based (CA) simulation tools have been widely developed and applied. Previous studies have extensively discussed various model building and calibration techniques to improve simulation performance. However, it has been a common practice that the simulation is conducted at and only at the spatial extent where the results are needed, while as we know, urban development in one place can also be influenced by the situations in the broader contexts. To tackle this gap, in this paper, the impact of the simulation of spatial extent on simulation performance is tested and discussed. We used five villages at the rural–urban fringe in Chengdu, China as the case study. Urban growth CA models are built and trained at the spatial extent of the village and the whole city. Comparisons between the simulation results and the actual urban growth in the study area from 2005 to 2015 show that the accuracy of the city model was 7.33% higher than the village model and the latter had more errors in simulating the growth of small clusters. Our experiment suggests that, at least in some cases, urban growth modeling at a larger spatial extent can yield better results than merely modeling the area of interest, and the impacts of the spatial extent of simulation should be considered by modelers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Analysis of Urbanization towards Urban Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen at a Small Watershed Scale as the Result of Land Use Conversion on the Loess Plateau
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4757; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124757 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) are important soil components for agricultural production. Soil quality is related to the total amount of SOC and total N sequestered in the soil. Land use plays a major role in the distribution and
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) are important soil components for agricultural production. Soil quality is related to the total amount of SOC and total N sequestered in the soil. Land use plays a major role in the distribution and amount of SOC and total N. This study analyses the amount of SOC and total N under various land cover types in 1987, 2005 and 2010, and evaluated their storage in land use conversions in a comprehensively managed watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. Results show that concentrations of SOC and total N in shrub land and natural grassland areas were significantly higher than for other land uses (farmland, orchard, abandoned farmland, manmade grassland) while cropland had the lowest concentration. Storage of SOC and total N increased along the revegetation chronosequence. As the storage of SOC in 2005 and 2010, they were 3461.86 × 108 and 4504.04 × 108 g respectively. Soil organic carbon storage were enhanced one third just during 5 years. The effects of land use on SOC and total N were the most significant in the upper soil layers. The correlation between SOC, total N, and the C/N ratio indicated that the best combination of land uses were natural grassland and shrub land. They efficiently influenced the distribution and storage of SOC and total N, and benefited vegetation restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Erosion and the Sustainable Management of the Landscape)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Perceived Corporate Hypocrisy: Scale Development in the Context of U.S. Retail Employees
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4756; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124756 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Despite an increasing amount of research on perceived corporate hypocrisy (PCH), limited research has investigated PCH among employees. Particularly, the literature lacked a valid instrument for estimating employees’ PCH, even though employees experience severe consequences for PCH. To address this gap, a scale
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Despite an increasing amount of research on perceived corporate hypocrisy (PCH), limited research has investigated PCH among employees. Particularly, the literature lacked a valid instrument for estimating employees’ PCH, even though employees experience severe consequences for PCH. To address this gap, a scale was developed to measure employees’ PCH, using a three-stage Item Response Theory modeling approach. After a series of qualitative studies and six quantitative scale-development iterations, PCH was found to be a unidimensional construct represented by the perceived lack of morality, perceived control breach, double standards, and a value‒behavior gap. Further, the nine-item PCH scale was confirmed to be reliable, valid, and unbiased for different demographic groups. The scale makes theoretical contributions by being one of the few attempts to objectively measure employees’ hypocrisy judgements and incorporating corporations’ double standard and perceived commitment to morality as defining features of employees’ PCH. Assessment of employees’ PCH can help in expanding the hypocrisy literature beyond consumers’ perceptions. Finally, the scale enables corporations to measure employees’ PCH and get an in-depth understanding of the issues of concern as work and organizational phenomena. By implementing proper management strategies, corporations can potentially avoid PCH, create more favorable perceptions among employees, and improve their reputations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Supply Chains with Behavioral Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle Beyond Food Security: Challenges in Food Safety Policies and Governance along a Heterogeneous Agri-Food Chain and Its Effects on Health Measures and Sustainable Development in Mexico
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4755; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124755 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
This work describes the relevance of food policies and governance to reach food safety issues along a heterogeneous food chain, in the context of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) food security definition. Using personal interviews with agents in
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This work describes the relevance of food policies and governance to reach food safety issues along a heterogeneous food chain, in the context of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) food security definition. Using personal interviews with agents in the food chain, and secondary data from 2014–2018, this exploratory research demonstrated that: (a) Mexican food policies regarding food safety are oriented to the exports markets and/or high income producers-consumers; (b) this has split the agri-food chain in two: one serving international and/or high income consumers, and another serving domestic markets; (c) the agri-food chain that serves domestic markets experiences regulatory budget shortfalls, lacks coordination in food regulations across its agents, and brings about alternate informal markets that put peoples’ health and financial stability at risk, especially those lower-income consumers. Only 0.7% of producers, 12.5% of supermarkets and 42.8% of restaurants have some type of food safety certifications. This is worsened by the way public resources have been distributed, focused, prioritized, and planned. If the differences between big, medium and small producers continue to increase, it will increase regional and individual inequality, leading to two different countries: one developed and one developing, challenging its sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variation and Inequality in China’s Economic Resilience across Cities and Urban Agglomerations
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124754 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Economic resilience is a critical indicator of the sustainable development of an urban economy. This paper measures the urban economic resilience (UER) of 286 major cities in China from six indicators—economic growth, opening up, social development, environmental protection, natural conditions, and technological innovation—using
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Economic resilience is a critical indicator of the sustainable development of an urban economy. This paper measures the urban economic resilience (UER) of 286 major cities in China from six indicators—economic growth, opening up, social development, environmental protection, natural conditions, and technological innovation—using a subjective and objective weighting method and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods. Furthermore, kernel density estimation (KDE) was used to reveal the spatial and temporal trends in UER across cities, and a social opportunity function was applied to access the opportunity for economic resilience and the fairness of opportunities for economic resilience in 19 urban agglomerations in China. The results show that the UER was, in general, low across all cities but increased over time. Geographically, the UER disperses from the eastern coast to inland cities. Amongst urban agglomerations in China, the economic resilience opportunity index also varies spatially and increases over time. On the other hand, the opportunity fairness index of UER remained largely stable and substantial inequalities exist across all urban agglomerations, indicating the need for differentiated policy intervention to ensure equality and the sustainable development of the region. The methodology developed in this research can also be applied in other cities and regions to test its re-applicability and to understand the UER in different contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Geography: Location, Innovation and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Grazing Systems on Aboveground Biomass and Plant Species Dominance in Typical Chinese and Mongolian Steppes
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124753 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the effects of different grazing systems on plant communities, and examined the causes of Mongolian grassland desertification. The typical steppes near the Chinese-Mongolian border were studied using quadrat sampling and remote sensing methods. Aboveground biomass in the steppe areas differed
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This study investigated the effects of different grazing systems on plant communities, and examined the causes of Mongolian grassland desertification. The typical steppes near the Chinese-Mongolian border were studied using quadrat sampling and remote sensing methods. Aboveground biomass in the steppe areas differed significantly among the three grazing systems (p < 0.05): Biomass in the grazing-prohibited areas (455.9 g) was greater than that in the rotational-grazing areas (268.4 g) and the continuous grazing areas (122.2 g). Aboveground biomass was well correlated with the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI; y = 5600x2 + 260x + 110; R2 = 0.67; p < 0.05). The relative mean deviation between the aboveground biomass was calculated using this regression and the measured biomass was 29.1%. The Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) values for nomadic-grazing areas were greater than those for continuous-grazing areas in 1989, 2005, 2011, and 2016, and were significantly greater in 2011 and 2016. The SAVI values for the continuous-grazing areas were slightly, but not significantly greater, than those for the nomadic-grazing areas in 1993. Plant species that dominated in moderately degraded areas were most dominant in nomadic-grazing areas, followed by continuous-grazing areas and grazing-prohibited areas. Plant species that dominated in lightly and heavily degraded areas were most dominant in continuous-grazing areas, followed by nomadic-grazing areas and grazing-prohibited areas. Generally, continuous grazing caused more serious grassland degradation than did nomadic grazing, and nomadic-grazing areas tolerated more intense grazing than did continuous-grazing areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Sustainable Environmental Management)
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Open AccessArticle Academics’ Perceptions on Quality in Higher Education Shaping Key Performance Indicators
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4752; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124752 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Institutions in higher education (HE) continuously strive to develop and deliver impactful educational programs. At the same time, they should continue to fulfill their mission to educate students in basic applied subjects and in parallel respond to the need to equip students with
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Institutions in higher education (HE) continuously strive to develop and deliver impactful educational programs. At the same time, they should continue to fulfill their mission to educate students in basic applied subjects and in parallel respond to the need to equip students with new skills. For this reason, higher education institutions (HEI) perform periodical curricular reviews adhering to internal and external quality assurance systems. The subsequent curricular reforms are of a transformative nature, preparing graduates to tackle the challenges of globalization, unemployment and vanishing professions. For these reforms to lead to sustainable curricula, the integration of quality into educational programs is instrumental. A suggested way of achieving a transformative stance is to provide the context for the application and diffusion of quality metrics in teaching and learning. This research intends to provide a discussion of key performance indicators (KPIs) related to quality. This paper presents the second round of qualitative interviews with higher education administrators and professors as a promising vehicle for advancing towards the formulation of KPIs based on their understanding of the different independent dimensions of the quality construct. These KPIs will provide valuable insights into improving teaching, learning and assessment and will eventually lead to sustainable curricula. Research findings outline the significance of the time invested to design and update a course, indicate that technology-enhanced learning solutions are perceived as key quality drivers, and point out the need to align courses with industry requirements and real-world problems. Additionally, findings indicate that the quality and impact of teaching and learning is promoted by the multi/inter-disciplinary character of a course, the engagement of students in interactive discussions and student research as part of summative assessment. The main contribution of this research is an analytic discussion of perceptions of higher education administrators and professors about quality, leading to a significant enrichment of the relevant literature. A set of innovative generic KPIs which can be used in multidimensional quality assessment in higher education is eventually proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Capital, Human Capital, and Sustainability: A Bibliometric and Visualization Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4751; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124751 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Academic interest in social and human capital is growing significantly. Similarly, their relationship with sustainability is increasing, especially compared to sustainability’s relationship with natural capital and financial and economic capital. Bibliometric and visualization research on these relationships is nonetheless insufficient. This study analyzes
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Academic interest in social and human capital is growing significantly. Similarly, their relationship with sustainability is increasing, especially compared to sustainability’s relationship with natural capital and financial and economic capital. Bibliometric and visualization research on these relationships is nonetheless insufficient. This study analyzes the evolution of the literature on natural capital, financial and economic capital, and social and human capital related to sustainability. On the other hand, the study presents a bibliometric analysis on social capital and human capital (SHC) related to sustainability. The article studies 635 references collected from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database and utilizes visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer program to graphically map the material. The analysis involves co-occurrence of keywords, co-citation, and co-authorship. The results reveal not only the state of the art and the leading trends, but also the evolution regarding impact, main journals, documents, topics, authors, institutions, and countries. The study provides researchers and practitioners with a visual and schematic frame of the research on this topic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Increased Representation of Female Executives Improve Corporate Environmental Investment? Evidence from China
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124750 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Based on the upper echelon theory and theory of feminist care ethics, this paper uses the data of 359 Chinese listed companies between 2008–2016 to investigate the influence of female executives on corporate environmental investment. The results of the pooled OLS (Ordinary Least
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Based on the upper echelon theory and theory of feminist care ethics, this paper uses the data of 359 Chinese listed companies between 2008–2016 to investigate the influence of female executives on corporate environmental investment. The results of the pooled OLS (Ordinary Least Square) regression reveals that both having a female as CEO or Chair as well as increased representation of female directors on the board committees significantly increases corporate environmental investment. Moreover, this phenomenon is not only evident in polluting enterprises but also exists in non-polluting enterprises. Further, we examine whether female executives’ environmental investment is driven by the motive of availing government subsidies or to comply with the environmental regulations. The empirical testing reveals that the environmental investment by female executives is not associated with the acquisition of government subsidies. Moreover, female executives’ environmental investment remains significant in China’s eastern regions despite having less stringent government regulations. The study also found that contrary to the result in the male sample, environmental investment by the female executives significantly reduces pollutant emissions. The present study adds a new perspective to the CSR literature and suggests that an increase in environmental investment by the women executives lies primarily in their innate commitment towards social responsibility. Against the backdrop of a greater emphasis on environmental protection in China, it is concluded that increased representation of female executives in enterprises can contribute to a significant improvement in environmental quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of Input–Output Value for Sustainability in a Chinese Steel Production System Based on Emergy Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4749; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124749
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
: The social investment, natural resource consumption, and pollutant emissions involved in steel production can be evaluated comprehensively using the emergy analysis. We explored the sustainability of the steel production system from four aspects: input index, output index, input–output index, and sustainability index.
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: The social investment, natural resource consumption, and pollutant emissions involved in steel production can be evaluated comprehensively using the emergy analysis. We explored the sustainability of the steel production system from four aspects: input index, output index, input–output index, and sustainability index. The results showed that the maximum inputs were the intermediate product/recyclable materials produced within the production line; energy sources were mainly non-renewable and the emergy value of pollutants discharged was rather low. The environmental load rate of the pelletizing and sintering processes were the highest and the proportion of recycled materials for puddling and steel-making were the highest. The emergy investment rate of rolling was the highest; the emergy value of the pollutants discharged in each process was very small, and the emergy yield ratio was highest in the rolling process. Pelletizing, sintering, and steel-making were input consuming processes, but the sustainability index of puddling and rolling processes was sound. The whole process line can be sustainable, considering the useful intermediate and recyclable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy, Ethical Funds, and Engineering Projects)
Open AccessArticle From Health Technology Assessment to Health Technology Sustainability
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4748; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124748
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to propose a methodological lens to the assessment of technological innovations in healthcare based on the principles of social, economic, and political sustainability. Starting from the consideration of a lack of a unified interpretative framework of health technology assessment, using
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This paper aims to propose a methodological lens to the assessment of technological innovations in healthcare based on the principles of social, economic, and political sustainability. Starting from the consideration of a lack of a unified interpretative framework of health technology assessment, using a content analysis of the relevant literature on the topic, we identified both the scientific perspectives adopted by the scholars and the most widely discussed topics. Consequently, the less explored scientific areas were framed, and, therefore, those more susceptible to further investigation came to light. The result is an overall picture which highlights the absence of unified and generally accepted approaches to evaluation, together with the lack of awareness on the fact that the multiplicity of methods adopted is essentially connected to the multiplicity of innovations, for each of which a method (or a set of methods) of preferable evaluation can be prefigured. Based on these observations, we propose a general reference framework for evaluation, based on the Viable Systems Approach (vSa), and a schematic outline of the connections between the complexity of innovations and the evaluation methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Spatial Differentiation of Urban Black and Odorous Waters in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4747; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124747
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The pollution problem caused by urban black and odorous waters has received much attention from the Chinese government. Our research aims at systematically identifying the characteristics and the influential factors of spatial differentiation of urban black and odorous waters across China. The research,
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The pollution problem caused by urban black and odorous waters has received much attention from the Chinese government. Our research aims at systematically identifying the characteristics and the influential factors of spatial differentiation of urban black and odorous waters across China. The research, based on the data of black and odorous waters from 2100 Chinese cities, was conducted with the spatial analysis tool of ArcGIS. We found that the amount of Chinese urban black and odorous waters varied in spatial distribution, which was an agglomerated type with significant agglomeration. The kernel density was characterized by independent single kernel centers with ribbon-like and sporadic distributions of subcenters. The cold and hot spots showed a gradient distribution pattern of cold in the southwest and hot in the central east. These spatial distribution characteristics could be attributed to the following core factors, total wastewater discharge, length of urban drainage pipelines, municipal solid waste collection, daily urban sewage treatment capacity, and investment in urban pollution treatment of wastewater. The findings reveal the current geospatial distribution of black and odorous waters pollution and provide reference for the Chinese government to treat the pollution from several key points. Lastly, it is suggested that the Chinese government should establish joint control, joint prevention, and joint treatment mechanisms in the black and odorous waters areas and improve the safety standards of the whole water environment, so as to promote the treatment and elimination of urban black and odorous waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Analysis of Urbanization towards Urban Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamics of Cooperation in Minority Games in Alliance Networks
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4746; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124746
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Alliance networks are the underlying structures of social systems in business, management, and society. The sustainability and dynamics of a social system rely on the structural evolutions of the topologies. Understanding the evolution sheds light on the dynamics and sustainability of a social
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Alliance networks are the underlying structures of social systems in business, management, and society. The sustainability and dynamics of a social system rely on the structural evolutions of the topologies. Understanding the evolution sheds light on the dynamics and sustainability of a social system. Minority game models have been successfully applied across social science, economy, management, and engineering. They provide simple yet applicable modeling to articulate the evolutionary cooperation dynamics of competitive players in binary decision situations. By extending the minority games played in alliance networks, the cooperation in structured systems of different network topologies is analyzed. In this model, local and global score strategies are considered with and without cooperation rewiring options. The cooperation level, the score, and the topological properties are investigated. The research uses a numerical simulation approach on random networks, scale-free networks, and small-world networks. The results suggest that the network rewiring strategy leads to higher systemic performance with a higher score and a higher level of stability in decision-making. Competitive decision-making can lead to a higher level of cooperation from a poor initial start. However, stubbornness in decision-making can lead to a poor situation when cooperation is discouraged. Players with local or global information adopt local and global score strategies. The results show that local strategies might lead to imbalance, while a global strategy might achieve a relatively stable outcome. This work contributes to bridge minority games in structured networks to study the cooperation between formation and evolution, and calls for future minority game modeling on social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Do Administrative Incentives for the Containment of Cities Work? An Analysis of the Accelerated Procedure for Binding Land-Use Plans for Inner Urban Development in Germany
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4745; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124745
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
In order to reduce land conversion for settlement and traffic purposes, the German government introduced in 2002 the 30 ha per day objective and since then established a number of policies and projects in order to achieve this goal in 2030. On 1
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In order to reduce land conversion for settlement and traffic purposes, the German government introduced in 2002 the 30 ha per day objective and since then established a number of policies and projects in order to achieve this goal in 2030. On 1 January 2007, an amendment of the Federal Building Code came into force, which introduced an accelerated procedure for binding land-use plans for inner urban development (section 13a). The aim of this amendment was to simplify and accelerate the planning law for projects to support inner urban development. This paper seeks to answer the question of whether or not the accelerated procedure contributes to increased inner urban development by providing incentives for the reuse of vacant developed land, which are often contaminated sites. Based on the example of the city of Stralsund in the rural region of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, we explore the quantitative land development in the inner and outer area from 1990 to 2018 and calculate costs savings for developers and public authorities. The results reveal that, although the accelerated procedure has been widely applied in the city of Stralsund since 2007, its effect on increased inner urban development has been very limited. The magnitude of the cost advantage is rather small, so that the accelerated procedure is often not regarded as decisive for the decision of inner versus outer development. The accelerated procedure has reduced the administrative burden for developers and public administration; however, in order to reach the 30 ha per day objective, more tailored policy instruments are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Evolution Mechanism and Optimal Reward-Penalty Mechanism for Collection Strategies in Reverse Supply Chains: The Case of Waste Mobile Phones in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124744
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to discuss the coopetition (cooperative competition) relationship between a manufacturer and a collector in the collection of waste mobile phones (WMPs) and examine the evolution mechanism and the internal reward-penalty mechanism (RPM) for their collection strategies. A
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The aim of this paper is to discuss the coopetition (cooperative competition) relationship between a manufacturer and a collector in the collection of waste mobile phones (WMPs) and examine the evolution mechanism and the internal reward-penalty mechanism (RPM) for their collection strategies. A coopetition evolutionary game model based on evolutionary game theory was developed to obtain their common and evolutional collection strategies. The pure-strategy Nash equilibriums of this model were obtained which showed their collection strategy choices of perfect competition or cooperation. The mixed strategy Nash equilibrium was obtained which revealed evolution trends and laws. In addition, the optimal RPM was obtained in the sensitivity analysis of related parameters. The example of WMPs in China was taken to examine the simulation of the RPM. Results show that (i) although the manufacturer and the collector may change their strategies of cooperation and competition over time, cooperation is their best choice to increase payoffs; (ii) the optimal RPM is beneficial to propel their cooperation tendency and then to increase their payoffs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping ICT Use along the Citrus (Kinnow) Value Chain in Sargodha District, Pakistan
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4743; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124743
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The value chains of fresh fruits and vegetables are sensitive to timeliness and require a quick information flow. Keeping in view its importance, this study has focused on mapping the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) along the citrus value chain, including
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The value chains of fresh fruits and vegetables are sensitive to timeliness and require a quick information flow. Keeping in view its importance, this study has focused on mapping the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) along the citrus value chain, including information channels being used, factors influencing ICT use, challenges, and weaknesses faced by value chain stakeholders. Cross-sectional data were mainly collected by structured and semi-structured interviews with value chain stakeholders and key informants. The citrus industry is very important for Pakistan as it is the 4th most important export commodity. There are two product flows in the citrus value chain, one is more traditional with abundant intermediaries, in which contractors, commission agents and wholesalers are the main stakeholders, and the other is export-oriented with processors and exporters (P&Es) as the main stakeholders. It has been noticed that growers are not using ICT extensively at the production stage. Logit analysis has proved that education significantly has influenced ICT use while age has a negative impact on ICT use at the production stage. Mobile usage is quite common at the production stage and intermediary trade; however, the use of the internet is very limited as the majority of intermediaries have lower education. Moreover, both mobile phones and internet are used to a significant extent along the export oriented flow. The results have indicated that there is a vast digital divide among value chain players. Processors and exporters are high ICT users followed by growers and intermediaries. In order to develop an effective information system, all the stakeholders in the chain need to have a certain level of knowledge and expertise of ICT use to improve information use efficiency. This study presents a whole picture of ICT use along the citrus value chain as well as challenges faced by different stakeholders. It also provides suggestions for policymakers to establish an ICT-based information system and enhance ICT adoption at each stage, especially production and intermediary trade, which can further increase growers’ market participation and improve market efficiency. In addition, it is necessary to make policies under the value chain framework rather than just focused on one stage or one stakeholder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle The Active Power Losses in the Road Lighting Installation with Dimmable LED Luminaires
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4742; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124742
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
In accordance with the requirements of PN EN 13201-5 standard for road lighting installation, energy performance indicators should be descripted. In order to calculate energy performance indicators, it is necessary to know the active power of the road lighting system. The above standard
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In accordance with the requirements of PN EN 13201-5 standard for road lighting installation, energy performance indicators should be descripted. In order to calculate energy performance indicators, it is necessary to know the active power of the road lighting system. The above standard does not specify whether active power losses should be taken into account in calculations. The main purpose of the article is to estimate the active power losses in the road lighting installation. The article presents methods for calculating active power losses, taking into account losses in all main elements of the installation. The obtained calculation results show the relationship between active power losses and the power of luminaires, their number and spacing between poles. Calculations of active power losses were made for single-phase and three-phase installations. The active power losses in a three-phase system do not exceed 1.5% and in a single-phase installation they may be greater than 7%. Therefore, in order to obtain exact values of energy performance indicators (and also predict electricity consumption), active power losses should be taken into account in calculations. In addition, a comparative analysis of the effect of luminaires dimming and active power losses on annual CO2 emissions was made. Not taking into account the active power losses in the calculation of the lighting installation’s power, for single-phase installations in particular, understates the calculated value of CO2 emissions by more than 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Power System and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Predictors of Quality Internship Programs—The Case of Romanian Business and Administration University Education
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4741; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124741
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
To a large extent, research regarding internship programs emphasizes their crucial role in the future career of students. Business professionals and educators acknowledge the positive influence in the engagement of companies towards future potential employees. However, the quality of these internship programs in
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To a large extent, research regarding internship programs emphasizes their crucial role in the future career of students. Business professionals and educators acknowledge the positive influence in the engagement of companies towards future potential employees. However, the quality of these internship programs in Romania is sometimes questionable and further research is needed in the field. Our paper aims at identifying and analyzing the main factors which influence the quality of an internship program from Romanian business and administration students’ perspective. The findings and analysis of the current paper are based on a survey conducted on 458 undergraduate and master students of the Bucharest University of Economic Studies. By acknowledging these qualitative factors, third parties such as policy makers in educational sector, universities, and companies receive important information to better organize internships in order to meet students’ expectations and discover real high potential candidates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Beyond Wastescapes: Towards Circular Landscapes. Addressing the Spatial Dimension of Circularity through the Regeneration of Wastescapes
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4740; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124740
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Wastescapes are the result of unsustainable linear growth processes and their spatial consequences within the context of urban metabolic flows and related infrastructure. They represent the operational infrastructure for waste management and include Drosscapes, generating complex relations with the servicing and surrounding territory.
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Wastescapes are the result of unsustainable linear growth processes and their spatial consequences within the context of urban metabolic flows and related infrastructure. They represent the operational infrastructure for waste management and include Drosscapes, generating complex relations with the servicing and surrounding territory. In particular, the peri-urban areas are spatially affected by these processes. This often leads to ineffective use and/or abandonment because they are currently impossible to use, demanding impactful (and often expensive) regeneration and revalorization to make them usable again. Being part of the urban metabolic process, wastescapes are in a continuous state of dynamic equilibrium. They can be considered crucial areas from a metropolitan perspective because they have the potential to become innovative spatial contexts or resources in a Circular Economy (CE), which aims to overcome the crises of both resource scarcity and spatial fragmentation. However, common and shared definitions of wastescapes are still missing at the European policy level, as only classical categories of material waste are generally mentioned. Wastescapes can be considered as ‘potentiality contexts’ where developing, testing, and implementing Eco-Innovative Solutions (EIS) can be done. By doing so, wastescapes can help start transitions towards a CE. This can be achieved by using Peri-urban Living Labs (PULL), which have the potential to be the virtual and physical environments in which experimenting the collaborative co-creation process for developing EIS can be done. Doing so will allow for the improvement of waste management and for the revalorization of wastescapes in collaboration with all potential stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Innovation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Spillover and the Influencing Factors Relating to Provincial Carbon Emissions in China Based on the Spatial Panel Data Model
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4739; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124739
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
From the perspective of spatial geography, this paper verifies the spatial dependence of China’s provincial carbon emissions. The contribution of impact factors with different fields of view to carbon emissions’ growth is estimated based on the spatial panel data model, t. The study
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From the perspective of spatial geography, this paper verifies the spatial dependence of China’s provincial carbon emissions. The contribution of impact factors with different fields of view to carbon emissions’ growth is estimated based on the spatial panel data model, t. The study found that during 2000–2015, China’s energy-related carbon emissions in the provinces were dependent on the spatial, and the spatial spillover effect of carbon emissions and its influencing factors in the neighboring provinces are obvious. It was also found that economic growth, industrial structure, financial development, and urbanization rates are positive, and the effect of the population and technological progress on reducing carbon emissions is significant. The effect of source price, export dependence, and fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions’ growth did not pass a significance test. In the formulation of carbon emission-related policies and development plans, the government must consider the effect of the influencing factors affecting the carbon emissions in the adjacent area and combine the carbon emissions and spatial spillover effect of the related factors in order to reduce carbon emissions in the time dimension and the spatial dimension of China as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Warranty Decision Model and Remanufacturing Coordination Mechanism in Closed-Loop Supply Chain: View from a Consumer Behavior Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124738
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The remanufacturing warranty strategy has become an effective mechanism for reducing consumer risk and stimulating market demand in closed-loop supply chain management. Based on the characteristics of consumers’ behavior of purchase decisions, this paper studies the warranty decision model of remanufacturing closed-loop supply
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The remanufacturing warranty strategy has become an effective mechanism for reducing consumer risk and stimulating market demand in closed-loop supply chain management. Based on the characteristics of consumers’ behavior of purchase decisions, this paper studies the warranty decision model of remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain under the Stackelberg game model. The present study discussed and compared the decision variables, including remanufacturing product pricing, extended warranty service pricing, warranty period and supply chain system profit. The research shows that consumers’ decision-making significantly affirms the dual marginalization effect of the supply chain system while significantly affecting the supply chain warranty decision; the improved revenue sharing contract and the two charge contracts respectively coordinates the manufacturer-led and retail-oriented closed-loop supply chain system, which effectively implements the Pareto improvement of the closed-loop supply chain system with warranty services. In the present study, the model is verified and analyzed by numerical simulation. Full article
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