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Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 14, Issue 1 (February 2022) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): AMR is a concern in medical care for children who have a high burden of infectious diseases. We investigated the prevalence of bacterial species and their susceptibility to antimicrobials of 1019 clinical isolates from pediatric patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar in 2020. The most frequent bacterial species were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. High rates of multiple drug resistance were noted for E. coli (84%), K. pneumoniae (81%), and Acinetobacter sp. (65%), with nearly half of isolates showing carbapenem resistance. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was highly prevalent among Enterobacterales. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found in most bacterial species with different prevalence rates. The present study highlighted the significance of AMR monitoring among children in developing countries. View this paper
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Systematic Review
Vaccine-Induced Subacute Thyroiditis (De Quervain’s) after mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: A Case Report and Systematic Review
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 142-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010018 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
De Quervain’s thyroiditis, sometimes referred to as subacute thyroiditis (SAT), is the most common granulomatous disease of the thyroid, typically found after a viral infection in middle-aged women. The mRNA encoding for the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor is expressed in follicular thyroid cells, [...] Read more.
De Quervain’s thyroiditis, sometimes referred to as subacute thyroiditis (SAT), is the most common granulomatous disease of the thyroid, typically found after a viral infection in middle-aged women. The mRNA encoding for the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor is expressed in follicular thyroid cells, making them a potential target for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Besides infection, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have also been implicated in SAT pathogenesis. We present a case of a woman developing SAT following vaccination with Comirnaty by Pfizer Inc. (New-York, USA). We performed a systematic review of similar cases available in the literature to provide a better understanding of the topic. We searched the databases PubMed and Embase and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Patient records were then sorted according to the type of administered vaccine and a statistical analysis of the extracted data was performed. No statistically significant difference between mRNA vaccines and other vaccines in inducing SAT was found, nor was any found in terms of patient demographics, symptoms at presentation, initial, or follow-up blood tests. In our case report, we described the possible association between SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccine Comirnaty and SAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
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Article
The Influence of COVID-19 on Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activities
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 134-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010017 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Background: Respiratory viral diseases have considerably declined since the COVID-19 outbreak, perhaps through influence by nonpharmaceutical interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the CDC database to compare the pre- vs. post-pandemic flu activity (incidence) between the US states. Our secondary objectives were [...] Read more.
Background: Respiratory viral diseases have considerably declined since the COVID-19 outbreak, perhaps through influence by nonpharmaceutical interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the CDC database to compare the pre- vs. post-pandemic flu activity (incidence) between the US states. Our secondary objectives were to estimate the association between flu activity and flu vaccination rates and compare the national trends of flu and RSV activities since the pandemic outbreak. Methods: We estimated the difference between pre-pandemic (April 2019–March 2020) and post-pandemic (April 2020–March 2021) flu activity between individual states using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The association between flu activity and immunization rates was also measured. Finally, parallel time trend graphs for flu and RSV activities were illustrated with a time series modeler. Results: The median (IQR) pre-pandemic flu activity was 4.10 (1.38), higher than the post-pandemic activity (1.38 (0.71)) (p-value < 0.001). There was no difference between pre-pandemic (45.50% (39.10%)) and post-pandemic (45.0% (19.84%)) flu vaccine acceptance (p-value > 0.05). Flu activity and vaccination rates were not associated (p-value > 0.05). Flu activity has declined since the COVID-19 outbreak, while RSV made a strong comeback in June 2021. Conclusion: Flu activity has significantly diminished throughout the pandemic while a sudden upsurge in RSV is a public health concern indicative of possible resurgence of other viruses. Flu vaccine acceptance neither changed during the pandemic nor influenced the diminished Flu activity. Full article
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Review
Registry Systems for COVID-19 Vaccines and Rate of Acceptability for Vaccination Before and After Availability of Vaccines in 12 Countries: A Narrative Review
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 121-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010016 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Registry systems play a key role in promoting vaccination campaigns in the general population. In the present narrative review, we provide data from 12 12 countries for vaccination acceptance before the availability of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination coverage once it is available. We [...] Read more.
Registry systems play a key role in promoting vaccination campaigns in the general population. In the present narrative review, we provide data from 12 12 countries for vaccination acceptance before the availability of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination coverage once it is available. We selected a randomized representative sample of 12 countries from WHO regions and 194 total members by the Open Epi Random Program. We observed the results with different levels of vaccine acceptability between the studies that were performed before the availability of a vaccine against COVID-19 and the vaccination coverage after the availability of the COVID-19 vaccine. All the registry systems that were developed for the recent pandemic achieved the initial functional goals. Twelve months after the vaccination campaign has begun, varying results were reported for vaccination coverage against COVID-19 vaccines with rates as high as 98% (subjects with at least one dose of vaccine) in the United Arabic Emirates, and as low as 24% in South Africa. The United Arabic Emirates stood as the leader of the world with the highest number of vaccinations 88% fully vaccinated citizens followed by Canada with 80% fully vaccinated citizens. The available data suggest that vaccine registry systems could help increase vaccination coverage and aim in the control of future outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
Review
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Staphylococcus pettenkoferi
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 112-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010015 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Staphylococcus pettenkoferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus, first described in 2002. Using medical databases, i.e., Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Embase, we identified and analysed research, reports, and opinions dealing with S. pettenkoferi. Published data allow us to conclude that S. pettenkoferi [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pettenkoferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus, first described in 2002. Using medical databases, i.e., Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Embase, we identified and analysed research, reports, and opinions dealing with S. pettenkoferi. Published data allow us to conclude that S. pettenkoferi is a human commensal, opportunistic bacterium and may be isolated from the environment and animals. The involvement of S. pettenkoferi in bloodstream infection and osteomyelitis has been described, but its clinical relevance is not fully understood, so far. This work summarizes knowledge about S. pettenkoferi and reveals the difficulties and rules for interpreting the results of microbiological tests, when S. pettenkoferi has been identified in the blood sample. Clinical and laboratory criteria, recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the third international consensus definitions of sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3), are important to determine whether the presence of bacteria in the sample is a consequence of an infection, contamination from the environment, or translocation of the bacteria outside the place of its natural existence. The precise identification of bacteria from the blood sample and recognizing the true bacteraemia are critical to implement the appropriate procedures and make decisions concerning the patient’s medical care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Diseases)
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Case Report
Challenges in the Diagnosis of Viral Encephalitis in Children: The Case of Two Siblings
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 106-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010014 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Encephalitis in children may lead to adverse outcomes and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The prompt identification of the causative agent is important to guide proper management in cases with encephalitis; however, the etiology often remains undetermined. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis [...] Read more.
Encephalitis in children may lead to adverse outcomes and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The prompt identification of the causative agent is important to guide proper management in cases with encephalitis; however, the etiology often remains undetermined. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has increased the diagnostic yield in encephalitis cases; however, it may be occasionally misleading. In this article, we describe the case of a male immunocompetent child with encephalitis in which human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) was detected in CSF by PCR. As the detection of HHV-7 DNA in the CSF alone is insufficient to prove an etiologic association of severe encephalitis in immunocompetent children, alternative diagnoses were pursued. Enterovirus (E-11) was detected by PCR analysis of the nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs of the male patient. The final diagnosis was facilitated by the findings in his sibling, which presented concurrently with enteroviral encephalitis. Failure to detect enterovirus in the CSF by PCR does not exclude enteroviral encephalitis; screening of other samples, from other body sites, may be necessary to identify the virus, and physicians should take into consideration all evidence, including history, clinical presentation, and sick contacts’ clinical status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Infections)
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Case Report
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Surgical Site Infection after Cardiac Surgery in the COVID-19 Era: A Case Report
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 101-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010013 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Infection of surgical wounds with acid-fast bacilli, including tubercle bacilli, is rare, and is poorly described in the literature. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who developed a sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, diagnosed post-mortem. [...] Read more.
Infection of surgical wounds with acid-fast bacilli, including tubercle bacilli, is rare, and is poorly described in the literature. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who developed a sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, diagnosed post-mortem. SARS-CoV-2 infection contributed to worsened clinical conditions and surgical site infection. A high degree of suspicion to avoid unnecessary treatments and progression to severe disease with dismal prognosis is necessary in these types of infections. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Infectious Disease Reports in 2021
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 98-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010012 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Case Report
COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination Mimicking Heart Attack in a Healthy 56-Year-Old Physician
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 93-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010011 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
We report our experience regarding a 56-year-old physician who developed severe symptoms mimicking a heart attack a few days after receiving the second dose of the new mRNA vaccine of Pfizer-BioNTech for COVID-19 protection. The patient is a healthy individual with no comorbidities [...] Read more.
We report our experience regarding a 56-year-old physician who developed severe symptoms mimicking a heart attack a few days after receiving the second dose of the new mRNA vaccine of Pfizer-BioNTech for COVID-19 protection. The patient is a healthy individual with no comorbidities and a normal clinical and laboratory profile. Five days after receiving the second dose on his left shoulder, he manifested sudden, severe pain on the whole left arm which lasted for about one hour, gradually intensifying and migrating to the chest and presenting as severe angina or heart attack. All work-up, however, was negative, with no evidence of ischemic heart attack or myocarditis. Severe acute symptoms lasted for about 20 h and completely resolved after 36 h. Although myocarditis as a potential side effect of the vaccine with associated heart pain has been identified, chest pain mimicking heart attack with otherwise normal workup has not been reported. Physicians must consider this likely rare and self-resolving symptom in order to increase awareness and prevent themselves and their patients from increased anxiety and unnecessary laboratory investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Vaccines)
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Brief Report
Successful Treatment of Bacteremia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by KPC/OXA-48-like Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Producer with a Continuous Infusion of High-Dose Meropenem Plus Fosfomycin Guided by Real-Time Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 88-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010010 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to a pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain co-producing KPC and OXA-48 carbapenemases was successfully treated in a COVID-19 critically ill patient with a combination therapy of a high-dose continuous infusion of meropenem (up to 3 g every 6 h, [...] Read more.
Bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to a pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain co-producing KPC and OXA-48 carbapenemases was successfully treated in a COVID-19 critically ill patient with a combination therapy of a high-dose continuous infusion of meropenem (up to 3 g every 6 h, daily) plus fosfomycin (up to 24 g/daily) that was guided by real-time therapeutic drug monitoring. Clinical pharmacological advice was helpful in maximizing, over time, the pharmacodynamic target attainment of both antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
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Case Report
Mobiluncus curtisii Bacteremia: Case Study and Literature Review
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 82-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010009 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Background: There are few reports of bacteremia caused by Mobiluncus curtisii in the literature. We present a review of the literature in addition to a case study. Method: We describe the case of an 82-year-old patient who underwent gastrointestinal surgery and subsequently [...] Read more.
Background: There are few reports of bacteremia caused by Mobiluncus curtisii in the literature. We present a review of the literature in addition to a case study. Method: We describe the case of an 82-year-old patient who underwent gastrointestinal surgery and subsequently presented with dehydration, nausea, and hyperkalemia secondary to diarrhea. Further clinical work included blood cultures, and the patient was started empirically on piperacillin/tazobactam. Results: After five days, the blood culture bottle showed growth of a gram-variable, curved rod-shaped organism. After culture under anaerobic conditions on sheep blood agar, the organism was identified as Mobiluncus curtisii by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and enzymatic technology. A review of the literature reveals five additional cases of Mobiluncus curtisii bacteremia. Conclusions: This is the sixth case in the literature describing Mobiluncus species bacteremia. This organism is rarely identified in blood culture and is most often thought of in the context of bacterial vaginosis. However, the reported cases of bacteremia show gastrointestinal symptoms and presumed gastrointestinal source of infection. The pathogenesis of infection of this organism requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Diseases)
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Review
Selected Livestock-Associated Zoonoses as a Growing Challenge for Public Health
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 63-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010008 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to review the most significant livestock-associated zoonoses. Human and animal health are intimately connected. This idea has been known for more than a century but now it has gained special importance because of the increasing threat from [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to review the most significant livestock-associated zoonoses. Human and animal health are intimately connected. This idea has been known for more than a century but now it has gained special importance because of the increasing threat from zoonoses. Zoonosis is defined as any infection naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. As the frequency and prevalence of zoonotic diseases increase worldwide, they become a real threat to public health. In addition, many of the newly discovered diseases have a zoonotic origin. Due to globalization and urbanization, some of these diseases have already spread all over the world, caused by the international flow of goods, people, and animals. However, special attention should be paid to farm animals since, apart from the direct contact, humans consume their products, such as meat, eggs, and milk. Therefore, zoonoses such as salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, tuberculosis, swine and avian influenza, Q fever, brucellosis, STEC infections, and listeriosis are crucial for both veterinary and human medicine. Consequently, in the suspicion of any zoonoses outbreak, the medical and veterinary services should closely cooperate to protect the public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
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Case Report
Recurrent Campylobacter jejuni Infection in an Immunodeficient Patient Treated with Repeated Faecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT)—A Case Report
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 56-62; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010007 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
There is limited evidence to guide successful treatment of recurrent Campylobacter infection in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) already managed on regular immunoglobulin therapy. The role of faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is uncertain. We report a case of recurrent Campylobacter jejuni infection [...] Read more.
There is limited evidence to guide successful treatment of recurrent Campylobacter infection in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) already managed on regular immunoglobulin therapy. The role of faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is uncertain. We report a case of recurrent Campylobacter jejuni infection in a patient with CVID treated with repeated FMT with 18 months of symptom resolution prior to relapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Diseases)
Review
Loco-Regional Treatments for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in People Living with HIV
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 43-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010006 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 75–90% of primary liver cancers and is the sixth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the HIV-positive population, the risk of HCC is approximately four times higher than in the [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 75–90% of primary liver cancers and is the sixth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the HIV-positive population, the risk of HCC is approximately four times higher than in the general population, with higher cancer-specific mortality than in HIV-negative patients. In most cases, HCC diagnosis is made in patients younger than the HIV-negative population and in the intermediate-advanced stage, thus limiting the therapeutic possibilities. Treatment choice in HIV-positive patients with HCC is subject to cancer staging, liver function and health status, as for HIV-negative and non-HIV-negative HCC patients. There are relatively few studies on the efficacy and safety in HIV-positive patients to date in loco-regional treatments for HCC. So far, literature shows that curative treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have no significant differences in overall survival between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, as opposed to palliative treatments such as TACE, where there is a significant difference in overall survival. Although it can be assumed that the most recently discovered loco-regional therapies are applicable to HIV-positive patients with HCC in the same way as HIV-negative patients, further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The purpose of our review is to evaluate these treatments, their efficacy, effectiveness, safety and their applicability to HIV-positive patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV/AIDS: Transmission, Prevention and Treatment)
Article
The Quality of Life of Coronavirus Disease Survivors Living in Rural and Urban Area of Riau Province, Indonesia
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 33-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010005 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 789
Abstract
This study assesses the status of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among coronavirus survivors living in rural and urban districts in Riau province, Indonesia. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 468 and 285 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors living in rural and urban areas, [...] Read more.
This study assesses the status of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among coronavirus survivors living in rural and urban districts in Riau province, Indonesia. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 468 and 285 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors living in rural and urban areas, respectively in August 2021. The St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to measure the HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors. A higher total score domain corresponds to worse quality of life status. Quantile regression with the respect to 50th percentile found a significant association for the factors living in rural areas, being female, having comorbidities, and being hospitalized during treatment, with total score of 4.77, 2.43, 7.22, and 21.27 higher than in their contra parts, respectively. Moreover, having received full vaccination had the score 3.96 in total score. The HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors living in rural areas was significantly lower than in urban areas. Factors such as living in rural areas, female sex, having comorbidities, and history of symptomatic COVID-19 infection were identified as significant predictors for lower quality of life. Meanwhile, having full vaccination is a significant predictor for a better quality of life. The results of this study can provide the targeted recommendations for improvement of HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors. Full article
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Communication
Bacterial Species and Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Yangon, Myanmar, 2020
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 26-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010004 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concern in medical care for children who have high burden of infectious diseases. We investigated the prevalence of bacterial species and their susceptibility to antimicrobials of 1019 clinical isolates from pediatric patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Yangon, [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concern in medical care for children who have high burden of infectious diseases. We investigated the prevalence of bacterial species and their susceptibility to antimicrobials of 1019 clinical isolates from pediatric patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar for one-year period (2020). The most frequently recovered species was Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, all of which accounted for 43% of clinical isolates, while 25% of isolates comprised non-fermenter, including Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Phenotypically determined ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase)-positive rates in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter sp. were 82%, 88%, and 65%, respectively. High rates of multiple drug resistance were noted for E. coli (84%), K. pneumoniae (81%), and Acinetobacter sp. (65%), associated with carbapenem resistance in 48%, 42%, and 59% of isolates, respectively. In contrast, S. aureus isolates exhibited low resistance rates (<30%) to most of antimicrobials, with 22% being resistant to oxacillin/cefoxitin. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found in most of bacterial species with different prevalence rates. The present study revealed the current status on prevalence of bacterial species causing infections in pediatric patients in Myanmar, highlighting the significance to monitor AMR among children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
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Article
Pre-Existing Lymphopenia Increases the Risk of Hospitalization and Death after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 20-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
There is limited information regarding the severity of COVID-19 in immunocompromized patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study considering the period from 1 March 2020 to 31 December 2020 to determine whether previously existing lymphopenia increases the risk of hospitalization and death after [...] Read more.
There is limited information regarding the severity of COVID-19 in immunocompromized patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study considering the period from 1 March 2020 to 31 December 2020 to determine whether previously existing lymphopenia increases the risk of hospitalization and death after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population. The laboratory and hospital discharge databases of the Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Friuli Centrale were used, and 5415 subjects infected with SARS-CoV-2 and with at least one recent absolute lymphocyte count determination before SARS-CoV-2 positivity were included. In total, 817 (15.1%) patients had severe COVID-19. Patients developing severe COVID-19 were more frequently males (44.9% of the severe COVID-19 group vs. 41.5% in the non-severe COVID-19 group; p < 0.0001) and were older (73.2 ± 13.8 vs. 58.4 ± 20.3 years; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 29.9% of the lymphopenic patients developed severe COVID-19 vs. 14.5% of the non-lymphopenic patients (p < 0.0001). In a logistic regression model, female sex remained a protective factor (OR = 0.514, 95%CI 0.438–0.602, p < 0.0001), while age and lymphopenia remained risk factors for severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.047, 95%CI 1.042–1.053, p < 0.0001 for each additional year of age; OR = 1.715, 95%CI 1.239–2.347, p = 0.0011 for lymphopenia). This provides further information to stratify the risk of COVID-19 severity, which may be an important element in the management of immunosuppressive therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Infectious Diseases)
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Case Report
Life-Threatening Necrotizing Pneumonia with Panton–Valentine Leukocidin-Producing, Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in a Healthy Male Co-Infected with Influenza B
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 12-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010002 - 26 Dec 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
A previously healthy male was rushed into a hospital critically ill with confusion, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome only 43 h after having a normal chest X-ray and with blood samples showing only minimally elevated C-reactive protein. Two days earlier, the patient [...] Read more.
A previously healthy male was rushed into a hospital critically ill with confusion, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome only 43 h after having a normal chest X-ray and with blood samples showing only minimally elevated C-reactive protein. Two days earlier, the patient had returned to his home country, the Faroe Islands, from a 10-day work trip aboard a Scandinavian ship in Colombia. The diagnosis turned out to be an influenza B infection and necrotizing pneumonia with Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). It was influenza season in Colombia but not in the Faroe Islands. The frequency of MSSA with PVL-encoding genes among pediatric infection patients is very low in the Kingdom of Denmark and Faroe Islands and very high in Colombia, and the frequency generally varies highly by region. The patient in this case now suffers severe sequelae from the infection. With this case, we would like to remind clinicians of this rare but severe condition. PVL-producing S. aureus pneumonia should be considered in critically ill, previously healthy patients, especially during influenza season and if the patient has been traveling in countries with high frequencies of PVL-producing S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Diseases)
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Brief Report
Reported Barriers to Hepatitis C Treatment among Pregnant and Early-Parenting Mothers Undergoing Substance Use Disorder Treatment in One U.S. State
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14010001 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Nationwide, the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has risen in recent years. At least 90% of infected persons must be treated to achieve global elimination targets. The current study aimed to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV [...] Read more.
Nationwide, the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has risen in recent years. At least 90% of infected persons must be treated to achieve global elimination targets. The current study aimed to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV treatment uptake amongst pregnant and early-parenting women undergoing comprehensive substance use treatment. Twenty participants with documented HCV antibody positivity were recruited from two substance use treatment centers in central Kentucky. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about HCV, previous experiences, and intentions to seek care. Themes were extracted using an inductive analytical approach. Most participants were aware of the dangers posed by HCV infection. However, there was a high degree of misinformation about transmission mechanisms and treatment eligibility requirements. Low priority for HCV treatment also surfaced as a barrier to treatment uptake. Participants reported being unable to seek care due to time and resource limitations in the presence of a highly demanding treatment process. Findings from the current study suggest that more work is needed to eliminate residual barriers that limit access to HCV treatment among pregnant and early-parenting women in treatment for substance use disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis: Epidemiological Features and Prevention)
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