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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(2), 430-446;
Published: 29 June 2012
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This paper presents a control scheme of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation for the distribution power grid which integrates renewable generation units. An optimal control algorithm is developed to minimize the total operating cost. The potential for providing frequency regulation when the vehicles are idle is also analyzed. The power output of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is regulated to redistribute the PHEV charging energy and meanwhile provide the grid services. The regulation of PHEV charging load can consume the excessive power from wind generation units during the off-peak time. And with the frequency regulation, the power fluctuation of wind generator can be compensated and therefore stabilize the voltage and frequency. Finally, simulation results verify that the optimal control of V2G power can reduce total operating cost and enhance the voltage stability. Furthermore, the regulation capacity of V2G used for frequency regulation can improve the power quality and facilitate the integration of wind power generators.
Keywords: V2G; Renewable generation; electric vehicles; operating cost minimization; frequency regulation V2G; Renewable generation; electric vehicles; operating cost minimization; frequency regulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gao, S.; Chau, K.T.; Chan, C.C.; Liu, C. Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 430-446.

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