Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services
AbstractThis paper presents a control scheme of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation for the distribution power grid which integrates renewable generation units. An optimal control algorithm is developed to minimize the total operating cost. The potential for providing frequency regulation when the vehicles are idle is also analyzed. The power output of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is regulated to redistribute the PHEV charging energy and meanwhile provide the grid services. The regulation of PHEV charging load can consume the excessive power from wind generation units during the off-peak time. And with the frequency regulation, the power fluctuation of wind generator can be compensated and therefore stabilize the voltage and frequency. Finally, simulation results verify that the optimal control of V2G power can reduce total operating cost and enhance the voltage stability. Furthermore, the regulation capacity of V2G used for frequency regulation can improve the power quality and facilitate the integration of wind power generators.
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Gao, S.; Chau, K.T.; Chan, C.C.; Liu, C. Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 430-446.
Gao S, Chau KT, Chan CC, Liu C. Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2012; 5(2):430-446.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gao, Shuang.; Chau, K. T.; Chan, C. C.; Liu, Chunhua. 2012. "Bi-level Control Scheme for Vehicle-to-Grid Regulation Services." World Electr. Veh. J. 5, no. 2: 430-446.