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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2008) , Pages 1-88

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Open AccessArticle
Sorting Through the Many Total-Energy-Cycle Pathways Possible with Early Plug-In Hybrids
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 66-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010066 - 28 Mar 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 248
Abstract
Using the “total energy cycle” methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ~ 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information [...] Read more.
Using the “total energy cycle” methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ~ 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine “incremental” sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SOx) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from ~ 16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle’s life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Optimisation of a Full Electric Hybrid Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 57-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010057 - 28 Mar 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 411
Abstract
One of the main driving forces in automotive R&D is the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions to meet nowadays ecological, social and legal requirements. Pure battery electric or fuel cell drive trains are highly favourable in that context; however, they still suffer [...] Read more.
One of the main driving forces in automotive R&D is the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions to meet nowadays ecological, social and legal requirements. Pure battery electric or fuel cell drive trains are highly favourable in that context; however, they still suffer from severe drawbacks regarding performance, range and durability. Therefore new concepts have to be investigated taking advantage of the existing technologies and their potential. The vehicle concept considered in this paper focuses on the development of a full electric hybrid vehicle comprising of conventional electric propulsion combined with a fuel cell as range extender. The advantage of such a system is that the fuel cell is used under rather constant load conditions, which is advantageous for its durability and efficiency.
The electric hybrid vehicle concept is based on a conventional electric Citroen Berlingo (Citroen Berlingo electrique) integrating a Solid Oxid Fuel Cell (SOFC) fuelled with bio-diesel. For determination of the requirements of the fuel cell and the energy management comprehensive simulations based on a longitudinal vehicle model have been performed. The simulation results of the electric drive train have been validated on components and system level. Based on this validated vehicle model the electric hybrid vehicle concept is developed. A fuel cell model is integrated and parameter variation is performed regarding the size of the fuel cell as well as the battery. Focusing on the vehicle range, driving and charging times different concepts are investigated. The paper gives a detailed description of the vehicle simulation, the parameter variation results, the validation process and the determined optimised vehicle concepts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: How Does One Determine Their Potential for Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 38-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010038 - 28 Mar 2008
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 322
Abstract
Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ (PHEV’s) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or [...] Read more.
Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ (PHEV’s) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in “blended” mode (CDB) are examined. .Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inductive Charging of Ultracapacitor Electric Bus
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 29-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010029 - 28 Mar 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 233
Abstract
Many public transit agencies are exploring ways in which alternative fuels can be utilized to reduce our nation’s dependency on imported oil and to avoid the environmental impacts associated with the combustion of petroleum products. Of all the alternative fuel options, electricity is [...] Read more.
Many public transit agencies are exploring ways in which alternative fuels can be utilized to reduce our nation’s dependency on imported oil and to avoid the environmental impacts associated with the combustion of petroleum products. Of all the alternative fuel options, electricity is among the most desirable in terms of affordability, availability, security, and sustainability. Unfortunately, limitations in battery technology result in electric vehicle operating ranges that are much lower than those of internal combustion-powered vehicles. Although opportunity charging is one strategy for increasing the driving range of electric buses by means of a series of brief recharges during normally scheduled midday layovers, it has yet to be embraced by the transit industry, in part because of the difficulties involved in having drivers connect and disconnect the bus from the charger at regular intervals throughout the day. Roadway-mounted inductively-coupled power transfer systems effectively remove this constraint by automating the charge process, thereby obviating the need for driver intervention. Ultracapacitor energy storage systems offer advantages over battery systems for such applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Heavy Duty Hybrid Vehicle Evaluations in Utility Fleet Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 19-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010019 - 28 Mar 2008
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has shown a commitment to deploying vehicles in its fleet that meet or exceed emissions standards, emit lower greenhouse gases, and reduce use of petroleum. This has been best demonstrated by operating the nation's largest electric vehicle utility [...] Read more.
Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has shown a commitment to deploying vehicles in its fleet that meet or exceed emissions standards, emit lower greenhouse gases, and reduce use of petroleum. This has been best demonstrated by operating the nation's largest electric vehicle utility fleet to conduct daily business, as well as demonstrations of hydrogen, fuel cell, and hybrid vehicles. SCE has also for many years been evaluating heavy-duty hybrid technology for use in its fleet. Heavy duty vehicles use a large amount of fuel, and thus even a small percentage savings is significant in terms of total amount of fuel displaced. SCE's fleet uses millions of gallons of fuel per year, much of that being used to run trucks. In addition, the purchase price premium associated with hybrid vehicles is potentially much lower on a percentage basis than with light-duty vehicles. Recently, SCE took part in a national consortium to specify and order a limited number of prototype Class 6 hybrid-electric utility trucks. In conjunction, SCE developed extensive test and evaluation procedures using sophisticated methods and equipment. SCE received its truck in December of 2006. This paper will detail SCE's evaluation procedures and philosophies and give some details on preliminary experiences. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Globally Cool Vehicles: When Only Electric Will Do
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 10-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010010 - 28 Mar 2008
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Global Warming, Energy Independence and Healthier Air are the driving forces behind the search for alternative-to-gasoline fueled transportation. Though not as widely publicized, congestion worsens these problems by wasting fuel and generating more emissions while waiting for traffic to move. Myers Motors believes [...] Read more.
Global Warming, Energy Independence and Healthier Air are the driving forces behind the search for alternative-to-gasoline fueled transportation. Though not as widely publicized, congestion worsens these problems by wasting fuel and generating more emissions while waiting for traffic to move. Myers Motors believes that the easiest and fastest way to zero emissions and energy independence at the least total cost for personal transportation will come through pure electric vehicles. Electric vehicles already run on zero total emissions for those getting their power from hydro, solar, nuclear and wind; this will expand to include clean coal, waves and other technologies we haven't heard of yet. Battery technology exists today to power the range requirements on over half the vehicles in America, yet electric vehicles are more talked about than made. Myers Motors' unique method for introducing electric vehicles to the American public focuses on making highway-speed electrics vehicles available at a reasonable price to promote real world ownership.. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New Electric Postmen Helper Development and Evaluation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 3-9; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj1010003 - 28 Mar 2008
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) form a group of promising alternative vehicles for personal mobility and goods delivery. This manuscript reports about the European industrial EUREKA project called ‘New Electric Postman Helper.’ This project aims to develop the drive train for a range of [...] Read more.
Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) form a group of promising alternative vehicles for personal mobility and goods delivery. This manuscript reports about the European industrial EUREKA project called ‘New Electric Postman Helper.’ This project aims to develop the drive train for a range of mobility devices for postal distribution. The severe postal requirements which are not fully fulfilled by the vehicles on the European market today, and the strong interest of the postal organizations in solutions towards this issue, induced the set-up of this project in 2005. The introduction of LEV, in particular two- and three-wheelers, in the postal delivery business allows longer, more efficient and more sustainable delivery rounds. The close collaboration with several European postal organizations has allowed definition of the specifications of the electric power systems with characteristics meeting their specific needs. From an extensive questionnaire, the requirements of the different European postal operators were determined. A set of discriminating parameters was identified and used to calculate the design parameters of the electrical power system range starting from the postal requirements. The required energy capacity of the battery pack and the required motor torque were calculated from the postal parameters by using a dedicated design tool and resulted in the conception of a modular concept for postal electric vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Moving Electric Transportation Forward: The Many Faces of Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2010001 - 28 Mar 2008
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 211
Abstract
First-time attendees to classic car shows are frequently surprised to see vintage electric cars tucked in among the Model T’s and A’s [...]
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