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Volume 2, September
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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2008) – 11 articles , Pages 89-180

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Open AccessArticle
Accelerated Testing of Advanced Battery Technologies in PHEV Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 171-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020171 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 409
Abstract
EPRI and DaimlerChrysler developed a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) using the Sprinter Van to reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and operating costs while maintaining equivalent or superior functionality and performance. The utilization of grid electricity and operating efficiency significantly reduce petroleum consumption, greenhouse [...] Read more.
EPRI and DaimlerChrysler developed a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) using the Sprinter Van to reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and operating costs while maintaining equivalent or superior functionality and performance. The utilization of grid electricity and operating efficiency significantly reduce petroleum consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutants, especially benefiting urban areas.
Southern California Edison (SCE) collaborated with EPRI and DaimlerChrysler to evaluate the vehicle and two different battery technologies. This paper documents one of the first published battery test results related to PHEV applications from the beginning of the project, in September 2004.
The partners selected two advanced battery technologies, lithium ion (Li-Ion) chemistry from SAFT and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) chemistry from VARTA. The primary goals of the test are to evaluate the performance and cycle life of traction batteries for future PHEV Sprinter Van production using PHEV test profiles. The test profile replicates the most demanding urban driving conditions for the battery (i.e., low speed, high acceleration in charge-sustained HEV mode at low battery state of charge). It also uses a combination of HEV and EV driving modes to represent over 50% of statistical daily trips. One cycle includes three modes: (1) charge depletion mode, simulating the EV operation, (2) charge sustained mode, simulating the HEV operation, and (3) recharge mode, simulating the plug-in operation.
The SAFT battery technology shows encouraging results from simulated PHEV tests; one test cycle represents an average daily operation of a PHEV Sprinter Van (i.e., a 2.6-hour, 50-mile drive). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Safe and High Power Batteries for HEVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 164-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020164 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
Safety is one of the most important concerns for lithium-ion batteries due to the high energy density of the cells. In battery packs for HEV, PHEV, or EV applications, there exist dozens of lithium-ion cells that are connected in series and/or parallel to [...] Read more.
Safety is one of the most important concerns for lithium-ion batteries due to the high energy density of the cells. In battery packs for HEV, PHEV, or EV applications, there exist dozens of lithium-ion cells that are connected in series and/or parallel to create a pack with high voltage and that is capable of discharging and charging with high currents. Managing such a battery pack therefore requires increased safety management compared to a cellphone or laptop battery. Not only is the management of the safety important during usage of the pack but also during assembly and maintenance. The high voltage conditions (>100V) that exist in HEV battery packs can pose potential hazards for workers and auto mechanics. The need for increased safety controls increases with higher voltage systems. Therefore, improving the safety of the lithium-ion battery via the cell chemistry can lead to a reduction of cost for the HEV, PHEV, and EV battery by eliminating the need for costly battery management and cooling systems.
In order to improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries for use in HEV, PHEV, and EV applications, EnerDel has investigated various battery active materials using 2Ah sized prototype cells. These cells were tested according to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) test FreedomCAR manual. The tests included power capability, cycle life, calendar life, and cold cranking tests. In addition to the tests in the FreedomCAR test manual, some abuse tests such as overcharge and nail penetration were also carried out. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® High-Performance Battery for Ultra-Safe, Long-Range ZEVs, HEVs, and PHEVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 160-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020160 - 27 Jun 2008
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® based battery is a cost-effective solution for long-range, ultrasafe zero-emission (battery electric) and low-emission (plug-in hybrid) vehicles. Optimized for transportation, Electrovaya has developed fully integrated power system solutions with large-format cells, large-format modules, and integrated an intelligent battery [...] Read more.
Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® based battery is a cost-effective solution for long-range, ultrasafe zero-emission (battery electric) and low-emission (plug-in hybrid) vehicles. Optimized for transportation, Electrovaya has developed fully integrated power system solutions with large-format cells, large-format modules, and integrated an intelligent battery management system for safe and effective scale-up. Electrovaya’s proprietary SuperPolymer® technology is independent of the composition of the positive electrode active material and so multiple chemistry solutions are available, including the MN-Series, a Lithiated Manganese Oxide based system, with up to 50% higher energy density and comparable safety characteristics to Electrovaya’s Phosphate-Series solution.
This paper details the design approach and recent test results of Electrovaya’s solutions for (1) plug-in hybrids, with its program with New York State on a Ford Escape platform; (2) passenger vehicles, as demonstrated in a 30kWh ZEV in Norway; (3) fleet vehicles, such as an 80kWh delivery vehicle in partnership with Unicell, Purolator and the Canadian Government; and (4) off-road vehicles, such as its project with New York State Parks.
Electrovaya’s scalable power train solution is easily tailored to the demands of passenger, fleet, off-road, and heavy-duty applications. This solution is cost-competitive to ICE-based vehicles and superior in performance, safety and operating cost. Electrovaya’s SuperPolymer® technology gives superior safety and performance and is exceptionally suited to large format systems necessary for transportation applications.
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Overview of the D.O.E. Energy Storage R&D: Status for FY 2006
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 148-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020148 - 27 Jun 2008
Viewed by 843
Abstract
This paper presents an overview, including highlights and accomplishments, of the energy storage R&D effort at the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Office of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) during the Fiscal Year 2006 (and the early part of FY 2007). [...] Read more.
This paper presents an overview, including highlights and accomplishments, of the energy storage R&D effort at the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Office of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) during the Fiscal Year 2006 (and the early part of FY 2007). DOE maintains a close partnership with the automotive industry through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to support the development of advanced energy storage technologies, including batteries and ultracapacitors, for transportation applications. It leverages resources and expertise from automobile manufacturers, battery developers, small businesses, national laboratories, and universities to address the technical barriers which prevent the market introduction of vehicles using advanced energy storage technologies. The energy storage research activities include the developer program, applied battery research, and long-term focused fundamental research; which are organized to complement each other. The developer program is conducted in collaboration with battery developers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and includes benchmark testing, technology assessments, and system development. Applied battery research is focused on addressing cross-cutting barriers for high-power lithium-ion systems, which include the barriers of insufficient life, inadequate low temperature performance, inability to tolerate abuse, and a high cell-level cost. Focused fundamental research addresses critical problems of chemical instabilities for advanced batteries and attempts to better understand why systems fail, develops models to predict system failure and to enable optimization, and researches promising new materials. The paper also describes DOE’s current energy storage R&D coordination efforts with other agencies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 134-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020134 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promising technologies to help reduce the amount of petroleum consumed for transportation. In both HEVs and PHEVs, the battery pack is a key component to enabling their fuel savings potential. The battery [...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promising technologies to help reduce the amount of petroleum consumed for transportation. In both HEVs and PHEVs, the battery pack is a key component to enabling their fuel savings potential. The battery is also one of the most expensive components in the vehicle. One of the most significant factors impacting both the performance and life of a battery is temperature. In particular, operating a battery at elevated temperatures reduces its life. It is therefore important to design and implement effective battery thermal management systems. This paper analyzes the suitability of phase-change material (PCM) for battery thermal management in HEV and PHEV systems. A prototype PCM/graphite matrix module (that was not fully optimized for HEV applications) was evaluated experimentally under geometric and vehicle-simulation-based drive cycles. The results were used to validate a thermal model. The model was then used to explore the benefits and limitations of PCM thermal management. This study suggests that PCM can provide a peak-temperature-limiting benefit in vehicle applications, but the overall battery thermal management solution must rely on active cooling or on limiting the battery’s power output (or both) to avoid high temperatures during continuous cycling. Ultimately, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM to the thermal management system against the anticipated benefits: a smaller active cooling system, less need to limit battery power output in high-temperature conditions, and/or potentially reduced exposure to momentary or localized high cell temperatures. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supercapacitor Enhanced Battery Traction Systems – Concept Evaluation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 120-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020120 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 466
Abstract
This review paper gives an overview of state-of-the-art technology regarding supercapacitors, briefly discusses the aspect of supercapacitor balancing and compares and assesses two system designs incorporating supercapacitors, batteries and in one case with an interconnected converter. Supercapacitors offer a high power density and [...] Read more.
This review paper gives an overview of state-of-the-art technology regarding supercapacitors, briefly discusses the aspect of supercapacitor balancing and compares and assesses two system designs incorporating supercapacitors, batteries and in one case with an interconnected converter. Supercapacitors offer a high power density and long life cycle and could improve a battery-only setup subjected to peak loads. An electric kart test setup will be used to evaluate a simple direct parallel connection between the batteries and the supercapacitor bank. Measurements on a more advanced setup, incorporating an interconnected converter between the batteries and supercapacitors, will illustrate the effect of such an implementation compared to a plain parallel connected setup. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Study on an Advanced Lithium-ion Battery System for EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 113-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020113 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
This paper presents an extensive study concerning a lithium-ion battery system for constructing high-performance power source systems intended to make advanced environmental vehicles a practical reality. Battery performance must be predicted and designed with higher accuracy in order to achieve performance attributes suitable [...] Read more.
This paper presents an extensive study concerning a lithium-ion battery system for constructing high-performance power source systems intended to make advanced environmental vehicles a practical reality. Battery performance must be predicted and designed with higher accuracy in order to achieve performance attributes suitable for such power source systems. For example, more quantitative approaches for improving battery power output are needed that are based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental processes which take place in a battery. In line with these perspectives, we constructed a simulation model of electrode reactions and charge transport processes and used it to examine the effects of different factors on battery performance.
This approach is considered to be promising for the construction of a high-performance battery system for EV application. Higher battery performance can be expected from optimization of the electrode parameters. With regard to specific power in particular, the present study examined the possibility of improving battery power output during a short duration.
This paper describes how the concept of short-duration power output might be derived from the electrode characteristics and discusses its potential effects on the overall battery system. It also presents the results of simulations that examined the battery system from the standpoint of thermal behavior. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The New High Power Design of 8Ah Li-ion Battery for HEV Application
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 107-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020107 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
Researchers at The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) have developed a new 8Ah prismatic lithium battery cell with high current charge and discharge capability for use in hybrid electric systems applications. When 40 cells are combined in series, the system is capable of [...] Read more.
Researchers at The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) have developed a new 8Ah prismatic lithium battery cell with high current charge and discharge capability for use in hybrid electric systems applications. When 40 cells are combined in series, the system is capable of producing 144V which can be boosted up to 288V by using a high power DC-DC converter. The design results in (1) lower manufacturing and operating costs, (2) improved safety characteristics, (3) improved heat dissipation, and (4) improved battery management.
Particular emphasis have been given to enhancing both discharge and charge performance of the cell by optimizing material selection and structure to lower the internal resistance of the system, thereby improving both performance and safety characteristics for the single cell. By carefully tuning the design of both electrodes, this second generation cell can provide 300A of continuous discharge current while maintaining the ability to meet the minimum requirement for pulse power characteristics. This provides 625W of discharge power and the ability to accept 500W of regenerative power when the system is operated with the State of Charge (SoC) between 50 and 70%. The cell has also been designed to meet the abusive physical requirements associated with hybrid vehicle applications.
This paper highlights system requirements, describes the research and development process, and provides experimental test results for the 8Ah cell. The battery module design is also described. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Introducing a 150 kW (200 hp) Permanent Magnet Propulsion System Achieving 1 hp/lb
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 101-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020101 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 406
Abstract
UQM Technologies, a developer and manufacturer of electric propulsion systems, has recently introduced a 150 kW (200 hp) system for use in high performance applications, achieving 1 hp/lb power density. This system is an upgrade of a 100 kW system that has been [...] Read more.
UQM Technologies, a developer and manufacturer of electric propulsion systems, has recently introduced a 150 kW (200 hp) system for use in high performance applications, achieving 1 hp/lb power density. This system is an upgrade of a 100 kW system that has been available for the last ten years. The upgrade was driven by both customer requests for higher power systems and the development of new technologies. The additional 50% output is being made available without any additional size or weight to the system. The key enabling technologies are the armature winding and commutation method, the combination of which has created the majority of the torque and power improvement. Other features have been introduced with this system, including control mode versatility (torque/speed/voltage control on-the-fly), improved safety features and failure modes, and a new graphical user interface (GUI). Extensive performance testing was completed during the spring and summer of 2007, with the results published for all electrified vehicle manufacturers to evaluate against their needs. UQM’s next steps are to complete the acquisition and installation of production equipment and tooling to bring down the price of this system (and other UQM systems) as volumes increase. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Component Size on Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Global Optimization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 92-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020092 - 27 Jun 2008
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 451
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are a promising alternative to gas-only vehicles and offer the potential to greatly reduce fuel use in transportation. Their potential energy consumption is highly linked to the size of components. This study focuses on the impact of the electric [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are a promising alternative to gas-only vehicles and offer the potential to greatly reduce fuel use in transportation. Their potential energy consumption is highly linked to the size of components. This study focuses on the impact of the electric system energy and power on control and energy consumption. Based on a parallel pre-transmission architecture, several vehicles were modeled, with an all-electric range from 5 to 40 miles on the UDDS, to illustrate various levels of available electric energy. Five others vehicles were created, with various levels of power and same battery energy. The vehicles were then simulated under optimal control on multiple combinations of cycle and distance by using a global optimization algorithm. The global optimization algorithm, based on the Bellman principle, ensures a fair comparison between different vehicles by making each vehicle operate at its maximal potential. The results from each optimization are thoroughly analyzed to highlight control patterns. The potential minimal fuel consumption that can be achieved by each of them is presented. The results can also be used to find the potential minimal greenhouse gases emissions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy on Demand
World Electr. Veh. J. 2008, 2(2), 89-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj2020089 - 27 Jun 2008
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The increasing demand and subsequent increasing price of fossil fuels have coupled with concern over global warming to encourage interest in sustainable forms of energy and “greener” transportation. Hybrid vehicles are slowly gaining ground on traditional vehicles, bringing improved fuel efficiency and greater [...] Read more.
The increasing demand and subsequent increasing price of fossil fuels have coupled with concern over global warming to encourage interest in sustainable forms of energy and “greener” transportation. Hybrid vehicles are slowly gaining ground on traditional vehicles, bringing improved fuel efficiency and greater consumer interest in electric vehicles.[...] Full article
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